Physical Setting 29 January 2009 Questions Answer Keys

**The University of the State of New York**

Regents High School Examination

Physical Setting

Physics

Thursday, January 29, 2009 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only

**Directions (1–30):** For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the

word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

**1. A force of 25 newtons east and a force of 25 newtons west act concurrently on a 5.0-kilogram cart. What is the acceleration of the cart?**

- (1) 1.0 m/s
^{2}west - (2) 0.20 m/s
^{2}east - (3) 5.0 m/s
^{2}east **(4) 0 m/s**^{2}

**2. An unstretched spring has a length of 10. centimeters. When the spring is stretched by a force of 16 newtons, its length is increased to 18 centimeters. What is the spring constant of this spring?**

- (1) 0.89 N/cm
**(2) 2.0 N/cm**- (3) 1.6 N/cm
- (4) 1.8 N/cm

**3. What is the acceleration due to gravity at a location where a 15.0-kilogram mass weighs 45.0 newtons?**

- (1) 675 m/s
^{2} - (2) 9.81 m/s
^{2} **(3) 3.00 m/s**^{2}- (4) 0.333 m/s
^{2}

**4. As a car is driven south in a straight line with decreasing speed, the acceleration of the car must be**

**(1) directed northward**- (2) directed southward
- (3) zero
- (4) constant, but not zero

**5. A baseball dropped from the roof of a tall building takes 3.1 seconds to hit the ground. How tall is the building? [Neglect friction.]**

- (1) 15 m
- (2) 30. m
**(3) 47 m**- (4) 94 m

**6. Which object has the greatest inertia?**

- (1) a falling leaf
- (2) a softball in flight
**(3) a seated high school student**- (4) a rising helium-filled toy balloon

**7. Centripetal force F _{c} acts on a car going around a curve. If the speed of the car were twice as great, the magnitude of the centripetal force necessary to keep the car moving in the same path would be**

**Note that question 8 has only three choices.**

**8. The diagram below represents the path of a stunt car that is driven off a cliff, neglecting friction.**

Compared to the horizontal component of the car’s velocity at point A, the horizontal component of the car’s velocity at point B is

- (1) smaller
- (2) greater
**(3) the same**

**9. What is the average power required to raise a 1.81 × 10 ^{4}-newton elevator 12.0 meters in 22.5 seconds?**

- (1) 8.04 × 10
^{2}W **(2) 9.65 × 10**^{3}W- (3) 2.17 × 10
^{5}W - (4) 4.89 × 10
^{6}W

**10. If the speed of a moving object is doubled, the kinetic energy of the object is**

- (1) halved
- (2) doubled
- (3) unchanged
**(4) quadrupled**

**11. Which statement best explains why a “wet saw” used to cut through fine optical crystals is constantly lubricated with oil?**

**(1) Lubrication decreases friction and minimizes the increase of internal energy.**- (2) Lubrication decreases friction and maximizes the increase of internal energy.
- (3) Lubrication increases friction and minimizes the increase of internal energy.
- (4) Lubrication increases friction and maximizes the increase of internal energy.

**12. The diagram below shows a toy cart possessing 16 joules of kinetic energy traveling on a frictionless, horizontal surface toward a horizontal spring.**

If the cart comes to rest after compressing the spring a distance of 1.0 meter, what is the spring constant of the spring?

**(1) 32 N/m**- (2) 16 N/m
- (3) 8.0 N/m
- (4) 4.0 N/m

**13. How much work is required to lift a 10.-newton weight from 4.0 meters to 40. meters above the surface of Earth?**

- (1) 2.5 J
- (2) 3.6 J
**(3) 3.6 × 10**^{2}J- (4) 4.0 × 10
^{2}J

**14. Which situation describes a system with decreasing gravitational potential energy?**

- (1) a girl stretching a horizontal spring
- (2) a bicyclist riding up a steep hill
- (3) a rocket rising vertically from Earth
**(4) a boy jumping down from a tree limb**

**15. If 20 joules of work is used to transfer 20 coulombs of charge through a 20-ohm resistor, the potential difference across the resistor is**

**(1) 1 V**- (2) 20 V
- (3) 0.05 V
- (4) 400 V

**16. At 20°C, four conducting wires made of different materials have the same length and the same diameter. Which wire has the least resistance?**

- (1) aluminum
**(2) gold**- (3) nichrome
- (4) tungsten

**17. Three identical lamps are connected in parallel with each other. If the resistance of each lamp is X ohms, what is the equivalent resistance of this parallel combination?**

**18. A 2.0-ohm resistor and a 4.0-ohm resistor are connected in series with a 12-volt battery. If the current through the 2.0-ohm resistor is 2.0 amperes, the current through the 4.0-ohm resistor is**

- (1) 1.0 A
**(2) 2.0 A**- (3) 3.0 A
- (4) 4.0 A

**19. The diagram below shows a beam of electrons fired through the region between two oppositely charged parallel plates in a cathode ray tube.**

After passing between the charged plates, the electrons will most likely travel path

**(1) A**- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D

**20. In which circuit would current flow through resistor R _{1}, but not through resistor R_{2} while switch S is open?**

**21. The diagram below represents a 0.5-kilogram bar magnet and a 0.7-kilogram bar magnet with a distance of 0.2 meter between their centers.**

Which statement best describes the forces between the bar magnets?

- (1) Gravitational force and magnetic force are both repulsive.
- (2) Gravitational force is repulsive and magnetic force is attractive.
**(3) Gravitational force is attractive and magnetic force is repulsive.**- (4) Gravitational force and magnetic force are both attractive.

**22. A dampened fingertip rubbed around the rim of a crystal stemware glass causes the glass to vibrate and produce a musical note. This effect is due to**

**(1) resonance**- (2) refraction
- (3) reflection
- (4) rarefaction

**23. Which type of wave requires a material medium through which to travel?**

- (1) radio wave
- (2) microwave
- (3) light wave
**(4) mechanical wave**

**Note that question 24 has only three choices.**

**24. Compared to the speed of a sound wave in air, the speed of a radio wave in air is**

- (1) less
**(2) greater**- (3) the same

**Note that question 25 has only three choices.**

**25. If the amplitude of a wave is increased, the frequency of the wave will**

- (1) decrease
- (2) increase
**(3) remain the same**

**26. Which unit is equivalent to meters per second?**

- (1) Hz•s
**(2) Hz•m**- (3) s/Hz
- (4) m/Hz

**27. Which characteristic is the same for every color of light in a vacuum?**

- (1) energy
- (2) frequency
**(3) speed**- (4) period

**28. What is the speed of light (f = 5.09 × 10 ^{14} Hz) in flint glass?**

**(1) 1.81 × 10**^{8}m/s- (2) 1.97 × 10
^{8}m/s - (3) 3.00 × 10
^{8}m/s - (4) 4.98 × 10
^{8}m/s

**29. While playing, two children create a standing wave in a rope, as shown in the diagram below. A third child participates by jumping the rope.**

What is the wavelength of this standing wave?

- (1) 2.15 m
- (2) 4.30 m
- (3) 6.45 m
**(4) 8.60 m**

**30. A television remote control is used to direct pulses of electromagnetic radiation to a receiver on a television. This communication from the remote control to the television illustrates that electromagnetic radiation**

- (1) is a longitudinal wave
- (2) possesses energy inversely proportional to its frequency
- (3) diffracts and accelerates in air
**(4) transfers energy without transferring mass**

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