Physical Setting 26 January 2006 Questions Answer Keys

**The University of the State of New York**

Regents High School Examination

Physical Setting

Physics

Thursday, January 26, 2006 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only

**Directions (1–30):** For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

**1. The speed of a wagon increases from 2.5 meters per second to 9.0 meters per second in 3.0 seconds as it accelerates uniformly down a hill. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the wagon during this 3.0-second interval?**

- (1) 0.83 m/s
^{2} **(2) 2.2 m/s**^{2}- (3) 3.0 m/s
^{2} - (4) 3.8 m/s
^{2}

**2. A 1.0-kilogram ball is dropped from the roof of a building 40. meters tall. What is the approximate time of fall? [Neglect air resistance.]**

**(1) 2.9 s**- (2) 2.0 s
- (3) 4.1 s
- (4) 8.2 s

**3. Which is a scalar quantity?**

- (1) acceleration
- (2) momentum
**(3) speed**- (4) displacement

**4. A projectile is fired with an initial velocity of 120. meters per second at an angle, , above the horizontal. If the projectile’s initial horizontal speed is 55 meters per second, then angle measures approximately**

- (1) 13°
- (2) 27°
**(3) 63°**- (4) 75°

**5. A 2.0-kilogram laboratory cart is sliding across a horizontal frictionless surface at a constant velocity of 4.0 meters per second east. What will be the cart’s velocity after a 6.0-newton westward force acts on it for 2.0 seconds?**

- (1) 2.0 m/s east
**(2) 2.0 m/s west**- (3) 10. m/s east
- (4) 10. m/s west

**6. A 25.0-kilogram space probe fell freely with an acceleration of 2.00 meters per second2 just before it landed on a distant planet. What is the weight of the space probe on that planet?**

- (1) 12.5 N
- (2) 25.0 N
**(3) 50.0 N**- (4) 250. N

Base your answers to questions 7 and 8 on the diagram below, which shows a 1.0-newton metal disk resting on an index card that is balanced on top of a glass.

**7. What is the net force acting on the disk?**

- (1) 1.0 N
- (2) 2.0 N
**(3) 0 N**- (4) 9.8 N

**8. When the index card is quickly pulled away from the glass in a horizontal direction, the disk falls straight down into the glass. This action is a result of the disk’s**

**(1) inertia**- (2) charge
- (3) shape
- (4) temperature

**9. A vertical spring 0.100 meter long is elongated to a length of 0.119 meter when a 1.00-kilogram mass is attached to the bottom of the spring. The spring constant of this spring is**

- (1) 9.8 N/m
- (2) 82 N/m
- (3) 98 N/m
**(4) 520 N/m**

**Note that question 10 has only three choices.**

**10. Compared to the force needed to start sliding a crate across a rough level floor, the force needed to keep it sliding once it is moving is**

**(1) less**- (2) greater
- (3) the same

**11. A 400-newton girl standing on a dock exerts a force of 100 newtons on a 10 000-newton sailboat as she pushes it away from the dock. How much force does the sailboat exert on the girl?**

- (1) 25 N
**(2) 100 N**- (3) 400 N
- (4) 10 000 N

**Note that question 12 has only three choices.**

**12. A student on her way to school walks four blocks east, three blocks north, and another four blocks east, as shown in the diagram.**

Compared to the distance she walks, the magnitude of her displacement from home to school is

**(1) less**- (2) greater
- (3) the same

**13. The diagram below represents two satellites of equal mass, A and B, in circular orbits around a planet.**

Compared to the magnitude of the gravitational force of attraction between satellite A and the planet, the magnitude of the gravitational force of attraction between satellite B and the planet is

- (1) half as great
- (2) twice as great
**(3) one-fourth as great**- (4) four times as great

**14. The diagram below shows a 5.0-kilogram bucket of water being swung in a horizontal circle of 0.70-meter radius at a constant speed of 2.0 meters per second.**

The magnitude of the centripetal force on the bucket of water is approximately

- (1) 5.7 N
- (2) 14 N
**(3) 29 N**- (4) 200 N

**15. A 6.8-kilogram block is sliding down a horizontal, frictionless surface at a constant speed of 6.0 meters per second. The kinetic energy of the block is approximately**

- (1) 20. J
- (2) 41 J
**(3) 120 J**- (4) 240 J

**16. Through what vertical distance is a 50.-newton object moved if 250 joules of work is done against the gravitational field of Earth?**

- (1) 2.5 m
**(2) 5.0 m**- (3) 9.8 m
- (4) 25 m

**17. When a mass is placed on a spring with a spring constant of 15 newtons per meter, the spring is compressed 0.25 meter. How much elastic potential energy is stored in the spring**

**(1) 0.47 J**- (2) 0.94 J
- (3) 1.9 J
- (4) 3.8 J

**Note that question 18 has only three choices.**

**18. Two students of equal weight go from the first floor to the second floor. The first student uses an elevator and the second student walks up a flight of stairs. Compared to the gravitational potential energy gained by the first student, the gravitational potential energy gained by the second student is**

- (1) less
- (2) greater
**(3) the same**

**19. A 55.0-kilogram diver falls freely from a diving platform that is 3.00 meters above the surface of the water in a pool. When she is 1.00 meter above the water, what are her gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy with respect to the water’s surface?**

- (1) PE = 1620 J and KE = 0 J
- (2) PE = 1080 J and KE = 540 J
- (3) PE = 810 J and KE = 810 J
**(4) PE = 540 J and KE = 1080 J**

**20. A 0.25-kilogram baseball is thrown upward with a speed of 30. meters per second. Neglecting friction, the maximum height reached by the baseball is approximately**

- (1) 15 m
**(2) 46 m**- (3) 74 m
- (4) 92 m

**21. A truck weighing 3.0 × 10 ^{4} newtons was driven up a hill that is 1.6 × 10^{3} meters long to a level area that is 8.0 × 10^{2} meters above the starting point. If the trip took 480 seconds, what was the minimum power required?**

**(1) 5.0 × 10**^{4}W- (2) 1.0 × 10
^{5}W - (3) 1.2 × 10
^{10 }W - (4) 2.3 × 10
^{10}W

**22. The graph below represents the relationship between the potential difference (V) across a resistor and the current (I) through the resistor.**

Through which entire interval does the resistor obey Ohm’s law?

- (1) AB
**(2) BC**- (3) CD
- (4) AD

**23. Aluminum, copper, gold, and nichrome wires of equal lengths of 1.0 × 10– ^{1} meter and equal cross-sectional areas of 2.5 × 10–^{6} meter2 are at 20.°C. Which wire has the greatest electrical resistance?**

- (1) aluminum
- (2) copper
- (3) gold
**(4) nichrome**

**24. How much electrical energy is required to move a 4.00-microcoulomb charge through a potential difference of 36.0 volts?**

- (1) 9.00 × 10
^{6}J - (2) 144 J
**(3) 1.44 × 10–**^{4}J- (4) 1.11 × 10–
^{7}J

**25. What must be inserted between points A and B to establish a steady electric current in the incomplete circuit represented in the diagram below?**

- (1) switch
- (2) voltmeter
- (3) magnetic field source
**(4) source of potential difference**

**26. In a series circuit containing two lamps, the battery supplies a potential difference of 1.5 volts. If the current in the circuit is 0.10 ampere, at what rate does the circuit use energy?**

- (1) 0.015 W
**(2) 0.15 W**- (3) 1.5 W
- (4) 15 W

**27. An electron placed between oppositely charged parallel plates A and B moves toward plate A, as represented in the diagram below.**

What is the direction of the electric field between the plates?

- (1) toward plate A
**(2) toward plate B**- (3) into the page
- (4) out of the page

**28. A sonar wave is reflected from the ocean floor. For which angles of incidence do the wave’s angle of reflection equal its angle of incidence?**

- (1) angles less than 45°, only
- (2) an angle of 45°, only
- (3) angles greater than 45°, only
**(4) all angles of incidence**

**29. How are electromagnetic waves that are produced by oscillating charges and sound waves that are produced by oscillating tuning forks similar?**

**(1) Both have the same frequency as their respective sources.**- (2) Both require a matter medium for propagation.
- (3) Both are longitudinal waves.
- (4) Both are transverse waves.

**30. The diagram below represents a transverse wave traveling in a string.**

Which two labeled points are 180° out of phase?

- (1) A and D
- (2) B and F
**(3) D and F**- (4) D and H

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