Living Environment June 2016

Living Environment June 2016 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Wednesday, June 15, 2016 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Which statement is an example of the interdependence of organisms?

  • (1) Owls hunt at night.
  • (2) Ants get food from insects and protect insects from predators.
  • (3) Ticks feed on the blood of animals and the ticks grow larger.
  • (4) Crows feed on dead mice.
Answer: (2) Ants get food from insects and protect insects from predators.

2. Residents of a town are concerned that a recently built factory could pose health risks. Scientists were asked to investigate the effects of the factory on the health of local residents. The most relevant information they reported was that

  • (1) in a survey, residents felt that the air in town looks dirtier now
  • (2) there have been reports that other types of factories have been linked with health issues
  • (3) residents have occasionally seen smoke coming from the factory
  • (4) local medical facilities have recently reported a 15% increase in the number of patients treated for asthma
Answer: (4) local medical facilities have recently reported a 15% increase in the number of patients treated for asthma

3. Farmers may someday clone their best milkproducing cow into a whole herd. What potential disadvantage might be important to consider in having such a large group of clones on one farm?

  • (1) It may be difficult to tell the animals apart.
  • (2) Lack of variation may limit survival in the herd.
  • (3) The cows could be fertilized by only one type of bull.
  • (4) The cows could be mated only with each other.
Answer: (2) Lack of variation may limit survival in the herd.

4. DNA replication occurs in preparation for

  • (1) mitosis, only
  • (2) meiosis, only
  • (3) both mitosis and meiosis
  • (4) neither mitosis nor meiosis
Answer: (3) both mitosis and meiosis

5. An individual eats a hamburger. Which two systems must interact to transfer the nutrients in the hamburger to human muscle tissue?

  • (1) respiratory and excretory
  • (2) digestive and immune
  • (3) digestive and circulatory
  • (4) circulatory and respiratory
Answer: (3) digestive and circulatory

6. The diagram below shows cell A completing a life process.

Living Environment June 2016 Question 06

Cell A performs functions similar to the tissues and systems in complex, multicellular organisms. This process results in

  • (1) increased genetic variation
  • (2) the maintenance of homeostasis
  • (3) a reduction in competition
  • (4) increased autotrophic nutrition
Answer: (2) the maintenance of homeostasis

7. The shape of a protein molecule directly determines its

  • (1) movements through the cytoplasm
  • (2) functions inside and outside of cells
  • (3) roles in building water molecules
  • (4) circulation throughout the body
Answer: (2) functions inside and outside of cells

8. The diagram below represents a cell and some molecules in its environment.

Living Environment June 2016 Question 08

Which molecule would require the use of energy in order to be brought into the cell?

  • (1) 1
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 3
  • (4) 4
Answer: (4) 4

9. Many domestic plants that are currently used for food by humans share a wild plant ancestor. The changes that have occurred in four common plants and the results are shown in the chart below.

Living Environment June 2016 Question 09

What event most likely produced the changes that occurred in the wild plant ancestor?

  • (1) Mutations in wild mustard sex cells were passed on to offspring.
  • (2) Humans did not like to eat wild mustard.
  • (3) Competition for survival occurred in all ecosystems of the world.
  • (4) Ancient herbivores overgrazed wild mustard.
Answer: (1) Mutations in wild mustard sex cells were passed on to offspring.

10. A strand of DNA in a skin cell contains the bases:

A-T-G-C-C-A-T-C-G-G-T-A

After the cell is exposed to ultraviolet light, the strand contains the bases:

A-T-G-G-C-C-A-T-C-G-G-T-A

Which statement describes the result of this exposure?

  • (1) A new base has been inserted.
  • (2) A base has been deleted.
  • (3) One base has been substituted for another.
  • (4) There have been no changes in the bases.
Answer: (1) A new base has been inserted.

11. An ameba, a one-celled organism, can move, ingest, and transport materials within the cell, because it has

  • (1) organs
  • (2) organelles
  • (3) tissues
  • (4) systems
Answer: (2) organelles

12. In humans, the placenta is essential to the embryo for

  • (1) nutrition, excretion, and reproduction
  • (2) respiration, nutrition, and excretion
  • (3) movement, reproduction, and nutrition
  • (4) coordination, movement, and growth
Answer: (2) respiration, nutrition, and excretion 

13. A student infected by a common cold virus ran a low-grade fever. After a few days, the student’s temperature returned to normal and the student was free of cold symptoms. The fever served as

  • (1) an antigen in the circulatory system
  • (2) an immune response to a pathogen
  • (3) a biological catalyst
  • (4) a weakened pathogen
Answer: (2) an immune response to a pathogen

14. Many animals have developed courtship behaviors. Males will often dance, swim, or sing in a particular way to attract a female. Males who are more successful at the courtship behavior will have a greater chance of having more offspring. This behavior is a result of

  • (1) natural selection
  • (2) genetic engineering
  • (3) asexual reproduction
  • (4) gene manipulation
Answer: (1) natural selection

15. After a zygote is formed, specialization of cells occurs. Through which process do the cells of a zygote become specialized?

  • (1) sexual reproduction
  • (2) meiosis
  • (3) fertilization
  • (4) differentiation
Answer: (4) differentiation

16. A farmer wanted to rid his apple trees of a particular leaf-eating insect. He sprayed his trees with an insecticide that killed 98% of the insects. The survival of 2% of this population of insects is most likely due to

  • (1) genes obtained from another species
  • (2) certain chemicals that stimulated overproduction
  • (3) variations that resulted from sexual reproduction
  • (4) their ability to produce food from the pesticide
Answer: (3) variations that resulted from sexual reproduction

17. Which occurrence represents an example of evolution?

  • (1) Exposure to radiation reduces the rate of mutation in leaf cells.
  • (2) A mutation in a liver cell causes a person to produce an enzyme that is less efficient.
  • (3) Cells in a zygote eventually change into bone cells or skin cells.
  • (4) Some antibiotics are almost useless, because pathogens have developed a resistance to these antibiotics.
Answer: (4) Some antibiotics are almost useless, because pathogens have developed a resistance to these antibiotics.

18. Populations of aspen trees in the western United States are being destroyed by an unexplained illness. The altered landscape is affecting the animals that live there. Populations of deer mice are increasing greatly in these areas. Unfortunately, these mice often carry a virus that is deadly to humans. This scenario best illustrates that

  • (1) a change in the environment always results in disease
  • (2) humans are the cause of the breakdown of this ecosystem
  • (3) the stability of this ecosystem is limited by the amount of water available
  • (4) every population in an ecosystem is linked with other populations
Answer: (4) every population in an ecosystem is linked with other populations 

19. The paramecium is a single-celled organism that reproduces asexually. The offspring of a paramecium usually contain

  • (1) only half of the genes of the parent cells
  • (2) more DNA than the parent cell
  • (3) genetic material identical to that of the parent cell
  • (4) fewer mutations than the parent cell
Answer: (3) genetic material identical to that of the parent cell 

20. A dead or weakened pathogen used to establish immunity would most likely be found in

  • (1) a pesticide
  • (2) an antibiotic
  • (3) a vaccine
  • (4) a toxin
Answer: (3) a vaccine

21. Which statement is true for all of the organisms in the ecosystem represented in the diagram below?

Living Environment June 2016 Question 21
  • (1) They use energy to combine the inorganic molecules carbon dioxide and water into energy-rich organic compounds.
  • (2) Stored energy cannot be used by these organisms as a source of energy for life processes.
  • (3) Energy stored in inorganic molecules is released during cellular respiration in these organisms.
  • (4) Energy is used by the organisms to obtain and transport materials, and to eliminate wastes.
Answer: (4) Energy is used by the organisms to obtain and transport materials, and to eliminate wastes.

22. When a natural disaster destroys a stable ecosystem, the area is temporarily less stable than before. This is most likely due to

  • (1) a decrease in biodiversity
  • (2) an increase in the number of food chains
  • (3) an increase in the number of species
  • (4) a decrease in the rate of mutation
Answer: (1) a decrease in biodiversity

23. An individual walks out of his air-conditioned (75°F) home into the hot outside environment (85°F). His ability to adjust to this changing environment involves a mechanism similar to

  • (1) the regulation of water loss by guard cells in plant leaves
  • (2) the digestion of carbohydrates by enzymes
  • (3) using ATP for the diffusion of water
  • (4) glucose production in the pancreas
Answer: (1) the regulation of water loss by guard cells in plant leaves

24. Nonrenewable resources are

  • (1) not finite and are not depleted over time
  • (2) not finite and are depleted over time
  • (3) finite and are not depleted over time
  • (4) finite and are depleted over time
Answer: (4) finite and are depleted over time

25. Dodder, a plant with no chlorophyll, grows on a living plant of a different species from which it obtains nutrients. Which pair of terms describes this relationship?

  • (1) parasite and host
  • (2) predator and prey
  • (3) producer and decomposer
  • (4) consumer and scavenger
Answer: (1) parasite and host

26. Three human hormones most directly involved in sexual reproduction are

  • (1) estrogen, insulin, and progesterone
  • (2) testosterone, estrogen, and insulin
  • (3) progesterone, ATP, and testosterone
  • (4) estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
Answer: (4) estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone 

27. At one point, scientists observed that the ozone shield was getting thinner. They warned that the loss of the effectiveness of this shield may lead to an increase in

  • (1) allergies to ozone
  • (2) mutations that lead to cancer
  • (3) viral diseases, such as AIDS
  • (4) ice formation at the poles
Answer: (2) mutations that lead to cancer 

28. As it grows from a seed to a mature plant, a plant will grow taller and thicker. Which are abiotic factors most responsible for the increase in the mass of the plant?

  • (1) water, minerals, bacteria
  • (2) sunlight, oxygen, plant receptors
  • (3) minerals, water, plant enzymes
  • (4) water, sunlight, carbon dioxide
Answer: (4) water, sunlight, carbon dioxide

29. Structures in an animal cell are represented in the diagram below

Living Environment June 2016 Question 29

Which row in the chart correctly identifies the functions of structures A, B, and C?

Living Environment June 2016 Question 29

30. The diagram below represents how air pollution may move across the eastern United States.

Living Environment June 2016 Question 30

In order to reduce the amount of air pollution in Pennsylvania, which change is necessary?

  • (1) Laws must be passed to protect endangered species.
  • (2) The use of natural resources must be increased.
  • (3) More coal-burning power plants must be built.
  • (4) The cooperation between the different states must be improved.
Answer: (1) Laws must be passed to protect endangered species.

 

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