Living Environment June 2015

Living Environment June 2015 Question Answer Keys

The University Of The State Of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Tuesday, June 16, 2015 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Materials are transported within a single-celled organism by the

  • (1) nucleus
  • (2) cytoplasm
  • (3) mitochondrion
  • (4) ribosome
Answer: (2) cytoplasm

2. Which row in the chart below correctly pairs a food molecule with its building block?3. The flow of energy in an ecosystem is best described as energy moving in

Living Environment June 2015 Question 02
Answer: (2) Sugar – Starch 

3 The flow of energy in an ecosystem is best described as energy moving in

  • (1) one direction from the Sun to the producers and then to the consumers
  • (2) one direction from a consumer to a producer and then to the Sun as heat and light
  • (3) two directions between the producers that are present
  • (4) two directions, back and forth, between the producers and the consumers
Answer: (1) one direction from the Sun to the producers and then to the consumers 

4. Occasionally, during pregnancy, the placenta can separate from the uterus. This causes a disruption in development and sometimes death of the fetus. Harm to the developing fetus might occur because the placenta

  • (1) transfers oxygen and nutrients to the fetal blood
  • (2) sends maternal blood into the fetus
  • (3) supplies milk for the fetus
  • (4) breaks down wastes of the fetus
Answer: (1) transfers oxygen and nutrients to the fetal blood 

5. Which process produces only identical offspring?

  • (1) meiotic cell division
  • (2) selective breeding
  • (3) cloning
  • (4) fertilization
Answer: (3) cloning 

6. A photograph of human cells as seen with a compound light microscope is shown below. A cell structure is labeled A.

Living Environment June 2015 Question 06

Structure A is most likely a

  • (1) mitochondrion that synthesizes food for the cell
  • (2) nucleus that is the site of food storage
  • (3) mitochondrion that absorbs energy from the Sun
  • (4) nucleus that is responsible for the storage of information
Answer: (4) nucleus that is responsible for the storage of information 

7. A land-dwelling organism, A, and an aquatic single-celled organism, B, are represented below.

Living Environment June 2015 Question 07

Which statement best explains how A and B are able to survive in their environments?

  • (1) The organelles in B perform similar functions to the organ systems in A.
  • (2) The transport system in B is more complex than the transport system in A.
  • (3) Both A and B take in oxygen from the water.
  • (4) Only A can pass on traits to offspring.
Answer: (1) The organelles in B perform similar functions to the organ systems in A. 

8. A man is exposed to large amounts of ultraviolet radiation while sunbathing at the beach. This exposure causes a genetic change in the DNA of a skin cell. In the future, this change can be passed on to

  • (1) his male and female children
  • (2) his male children, only
  • (3) all cells in his body
  • (4) his skin cells, only
Answer: (4) his skin cells, only 

9. Palm oil, produced from palm trees, is not only a biofuel, but is also used in food additives, cosmetics, and lubricants. Palm tree plantations are now cultivated in areas that were formerly natural forests. One ecological concern raised by this expansion is that

  • (1) the natural forest ecosystem may harm the palm trees
  • (2) the use of the land for agriculture will increase the biodiversity of the area
  • (3) humans are changing the basic processes of the palm trees
  • (4) planting large expanses of one crop reduces the biodiversity of the area
Answer: (4) planting large expanses of one crop reduces the biodiversity of the area 

10. Fishermen have harvested certain fish to the point where the population of that fish is decreasing. This level of direct harvesting could cause

  • (1) ecosystems to be improved for future generations
  • (2) ecosystems to be severely damaged
  • (3) the restoration of environmental stability
  • (4) all other fish species to increase in number
Answer: (2) ecosystems to be severely damaged 

11. Which phrase best describes a gene?

  • (1) a segment of a DNA molecule found only in the body cells of an organism
  • (2) a segment of a DNA molecule found only in the gametes of an organism
  • (3) a segment of a DNA molecule that contains the instructions for producing a trait in an organism
  • (4) a segment of a DNA molecule that contains the instructions for producing all the characteristics of an organism
Answer: (3) a segment of a DNA molecule that contains the instructions for producing a trait in an organism 

12. The molecule DNA contains the four bases listed below.
A – adenine
C – cytosine
G – guanine
T – thymine

Which base pairings normally occur during DNA replication?

  • (1) Guanine pairs with cytosine. Thymine pairs with thymine.
  • (2) Adenine pairs with thymine. Cytosine pairs with guanine.
  • (3) Thymine pairs with guanine. Cytosine pairs with adenine.
  • (4) Cytosine pairs with cytosine. Thymine pairs with thymine.
Answer: (2) Adenine pairs with thymine. Cytosine pairs with guanine. 

13. Evolution of a species could occur as a result of changes in the

  • (1) DNA in muscle cells
  • (2) base sequences in liver cells
  • (3) genes in an egg cell
  • (4) number of chromosomes in a fetal bone cell
Answer: (3) genes in an egg cell 

14. One positive impact that industrialization has had is that

  • (1) industrialization produces waste gases that pollute the air
  • (2) fossil fuels used by industries help reduce finite resources
  • (3) industrialization has been a source of many jobs for people
  • (4) new technologies have increased acid rain
Answer: (3) industrialization has been a source of many jobs for people 

15. When receiving x rays, individuals wear a lead shield over major organs in order to limit the body’s exposure to radiation. One reason for this procedure is to

  • (1) protect the patient against broken bones
  • (2) prevent mutations in gametes
  • (3) improve circulation in the patient
  • (4) increase the chance of a change in DNA
Answer: (2) prevent mutations in gametes

16. When an ant in a colony dies, the live ants will throw the dead ant out of the anthill. If a live ant from the colony, ant X, is sprayed with a chemical characteristic of dead ants, the live ants will repeatedly throw this ant out of the anthill until they can no longer detect the chemical on ant X. What is the best explanation for this behavior?

  • (1) The ants are responding to a chromosomal mutation in ant X.
  • (2) The chemical is exhibiting a feedback mechanism.
  • (3) The live ants must continue this behavior until they have eliminated ant X.
  • (4) The chemical acts as a stimulus for a particular behavior.
Answer: (4) The chemical acts as a stimulus for a particular behavior.

17. Rabbits produce large numbers of offspring during each reproductive season, yet the number of rabbits within a given population changes very little from year to year. The stability of the population size is most likely the result of

  • (1) the development of mutations in young rabbits
  • (2) environmental factors that keep the population in check
  • (3) rabbits continuing to reproduce when the population is large
  • (4) the survival of more female rabbits than male rabbits
Answer: (2) environmental factors that keep the population in check

18. Genetic engineering has the potential to correct human genetic disorders. In gene therapy, a defective gene is replaced by using a virus to insert a normal gene into the cells of an individual. This treatment will be most successful if the virus is inserted into cells that

  • (1) lack a nucleus
  • (2) are recycled after death, rather than removed from the body
  • (3) carry out one specific function, rather than multiple functions
  • (4) continue to divide during the life of the patient
Answer: (4) continue to divide during the life of the patient

19. In one town, some people support a proposal to build a shopping mall on a large, undeveloped lot, because it would increase business and create new jobs. As a trade-off, the shopping mall would cause a decrease in the

  • (1) amount of air pollution
  • (2) volume of garbage and litter
  • (3) amount of wastewater entering the local sewage system
  • (4) variety of wildlife populations in the area
Answer: (4) variety of wildlife populations in the area

20. The human female reproductive system is represented below.

Living Environment June 2015 Question 20

Which structure produces chemicals that regulate the reproductive cycle?

  • (1) A
  • (3) C
  • (2) B
  • (4) D
Answer: (1) A

21. The diagram below represents a cell structure involved in converting energy stored in organic molecules into a form used by animal cells.

Living Environment June 2015 Question 21

The arrows represent the movement of which substances?

  • (1) carbon dioxide and sugar
  • (2) oxygen and ATP
  • (3) ATP and carbon dioxide
  • (4) oxygen and sugar
Answer: (3) ATP and carbon dioxide

22. The diagram below shows a concept map.

Living Environment June 2015 Question 22

Which label correctly identifies what X represents in the concept map?

  • (1) nucleus
  • (2) chromosome
  • (3) autotrophic cell
  • (4) heterotrophic cell
Answer: (3) autotrophic cell

23. The diagrams below represent two molecules that are involved in metabolic activities in some living cells.

Living Environment June 2015 Question 23

The shape of each of the molecules is important because

  • (1) molecules having different shapes are always found in different organisms
  • (2) the shape of a molecule determines how it functions in chemical reactions
  • (3) the shape of a molecule determines the age of an organism
  • (4) if the shape of any molecule in an organism changes, the DNA in that organism will also change
Answer: (2) the shape of a molecule determines how it functions in chemical reactions

24. In the early 1900s, experiments were conducted on two caterpillar species. The members of the two species were each divided into two groups. One group of each species was placed under red light, while the other group of each species was kept in the dark. When the caterpillars developed into butterflies, their wings showed extreme color differences. Exposure to red light resulted in intensely colored wings, while those kept in the dark had paler wing colors. The color differences were most likely due to

  • (1) mutations in the color-producing genes
  • (2) the caterpillars in the red light producing more DNA
  • (3) gene expression being affected by the environment
  • (4) the caterpillars in the dark evolving less than those in the light
Answer: (3) gene expression being affected by the environment

25. A student used a microscope to observe a single-celled organism. As he watched, it looked as if the organism split into two cells. He made drawings, shown below, of the organism over a short period of time.

Living Environment June 2015 Question 25

Which process did the student record in his drawings?

  • (1) genetic engineering
  • (2) asexual reproduction
  • (3) selective breeding
  • (4) gamete formation
Answer: (2) asexual reproduction

26. Medical professionals are concerned with the increase in the number of bacterial species that are resistant to antibiotics. Once resistance appears in a bacterial population, it spreads rapidly. This is most likely because

  • (1) populations of resistant bacteria are small
  • (2) exposure to antibiotics increases the rate of reproduction in bacteria
  • (3) resistant bacteria are small when compared to non-resistant bacteria.
  • (4) resistant bacteria survive in greater numbers and pass the trait to their offspring
Answer: (4) resistant bacteria survive in greater numbers and pass the trait to their offspring

27. When getting a vaccination, which substance is injected into the body?

  • (1) bacteria to combat a pathogen
  • (2) white blood cells to engulf a pathogen
  • (3) a weakened form of a virus
  • (4) antibiotics to kill a virus
Answer: (3) a weakened form of a virus

28. Many beverage companies are required to recycle bottles and cans because this activity directly reduces

  • (1) air pollution and destruction of the ozone shield
  • (2) overpopulation and soil erosion
  • (3) solid waste and depletion of resources
  • (4) thermal pollution and extinction of wildlife
Answer: (3) solid waste and depletion of resources

29. The diagram below shows some of the DNA in a bacterium into which a human gene, X, has been successfully inserted.

Living Environment June 2015 Question 29

The bacteria that result from reproduction of this cell will most likely have the ability to

  • (1) replicate all of the genetic instructions found in humans
  • (2) produce vaccines to be used to immunize humans
  • (3) produce a human blood cell according to instructions in gene X
  • (4) produce the human protein coded for by gene X
Answer: (4) produce the human protein coded for by gene X

30. The Eurasian water milfoil is a nonnative species, which was once commonly sold as an aquarium plant, and is now found growing in many lakes in New York State. It has few natural enemies, and grows rapidly, crowding out many native species. This plant ruins fishing areas and interferes with boating and other water sports. This is an example of

  • (1) human consumption of finite resources
  • (2) an unintended consequence of adding an organism to an ecosystem
  • (3) an abiotic factor having a negative effect on an ecosystem
  • (4) the introduction of a species that has increased the long-term biodiversity of an ecosystem
Answer: (2) an unintended consequence of adding an organism to an ecosystem

 

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