Living Environment June 2014

Living Environment June 2014 Question Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Tuesday, June 17, 2014 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. How do cells in the ovary detect a hormone from the brain?

  • (1) The brain sends a nerve impulse to the ovary.
  • (2) White blood cells bring the hormone to the ovary.
  • (3) Receptor molecules on the cells of the ovary bind with the hormone.
  • (4) Vacuoles within the ovary bind with the hormone.
Answer: (3) Receptor molecules on the cells of the ovary bind with the hormone.

2. Single-celled organisms are able to maintain internal stability because they

  • (1) have multiple organ systems
  • (2) work with other cells
  • (3) contain structures that perform life functions
  • (4) carry out photosynthesis to produce food
Answer: (3) contain structures that perform life functions 

3. A similarity between humans and many other multicellular animals is that they

  • (1) occupy the same niche in most food webs
  • (2) are composed of organ systems
  • (3) have the same DNA sequences
  • (4) carry out autotrophic nutrition
Answer: (2) are composed of organ systems 

4. In order to enter cells and be useful to the body, starch must be

  • (1) absorbed through the skin
  • (2) broken down into fats and water
  • (3) digested into simple sugars
  • (4) converted to carbon dioxide and ATP
Answer: (3) digested into simple sugars 

5. The increase of certain types of gases in the atmosphere has contributed to the problem of global warming. All these gases are

  • (1) biotic factors
  • (2) abiotic factors
  • (3) organic factors
  • (4) endangered factors
Answer: (2) abiotic factors 

6. Several goldfish were kept in a small aquarium for several years. The fish grew to be approximately 6 centimeters long in the first year, and after that, growth in length stopped. These fish were later transferred to a large pond. In the pond, the goldfish grew much larger, reaching lengths of around 25 centimeters. Which statement provides the best explanation for the increased growth of the fish in the pond?

  • (1) Chemicals present in the pond increased the amount of DNA in the fish, causing the growth increase.
  • (2) The expression of genetic information in the fish was influenced by their surroundings.
  • (3) The fish expressed and passed on only those characteristics that enabled them to survive in the new environment.
  • (4) The size of the fish depended only on their food supply and not on their DNA.
Answer: (2) The expression of genetic information in the fish was influenced by their surroundings. 

7. Autotrophs might survive when heterotrophs cannot, because autotrophs are able to

  • (1) reproduce asexually
  • (2) become dormant
  • (3) exist without respiration
  • (4) make their own food
Answer: (4) make their own food 

8. The inability of sperm cells to move normally could prevent the production of offspring by interfering with

  • (1) meiosis
  • (2) mitosis
  • (3) fertilization
  • (4) differentiation
Answer: (3) fertilization 

9. Which type of pathogenic microbe causes AIDS?

  • (1) a bacterium
  • (2) a virus
  • (3) a multicellular fungus
  • (4) a single-celled algae
Answer: (2) a virus 

10. The diagram below represents a technique used to produce carrots.

Living Environment August 2013

Which reproductive process determines the traits present in the cluster of cells?

  • (1) meiosis
  • (2) mitosis
  • (3) fertilization
  • (4) differentiation
Answer: (2) mitosis 

11. The diagram below represents a scientific technique in use today.

Living Environment August 2013

Scientists have used this technique to

  • (1) produce hormones for human use at a lower cost than other methods
  • (2) produce pathogens that are able to live in humans
  • (3) clone human cells with desired characteristics
  • (4) eliminate the need for laboratory production of medicines for humans
Answer: (1) produce hormones for human use at a lower cost than other methods 

12. DNA is able to control cellular activities most directly by regulating the process of

  • (1) meiotic division
  • (2) protein synthesis
  • (3) active transport
  • (4) selective breeding
Answer: (2) protein synthesis 

13. Which statement describes an effect of natural selection on a species?

  • (1) It favors the survival of certain members of the species and results in a change in the proportion of individuals with highly adaptive traits.
  • (2) It provides feedback mechanisms for members of a species and results in a change in the proportion of individuals with homeostatic controls.
  • (3) It leads to reproduction with other species, increasing the number of different adaptations.
  • (4) It increases competition between populations that occupy different niches, increasing the chance of extinction of the less-adapted species.
Answer: (1) It favors the survival of certain members of the species and results in a change in the proportion of individuals with highly adaptive traits. 

14. Maple leaf beetles and willow leaf beetles are named for the type of tree where they live and reproduce. They look identical to each other when observed, but experiments have shown that willow beetles would starve before eating maple leaves. This is an example of specialization that would directly reduce

  • (1) variation
  • (2) competition
  • (3) adaptation
  • (4) replication
Answer: (2) competition 

15. Which event would most likely cause a change in a genetic sequence in an organism?

  • (1) eating certain foods high in saturated fats
  • (2) strenuous physical activity
  • (3) exposure to radiation
  • (4) a sudden exposure to cooler temperatures
Answer: (3) exposure to radiation 

16. During the process of cellular respiration, energy is released from

  • (1) carbon dioxide
  • (2) oxygen atoms
  • (3) water molecules
  • (4) chemical bonds
Answer: (4) chemical bonds 

17. A new vaccine was developed and then tested on a large sample of individuals. This new vaccine will be considered effective if it helps prepare the body to fight future invasion by

  • (1) inhibiting the response of red blood cells
  • (2) stimulating the reproduction of microbes
  • (3) inhibiting the action of immune cells
  • (4) stimulating the production of antibodies
Answer: (4) stimulating the production of antibodies 

18. Which expression correctly represents a reproductive process that usually occurs in humans where 2n is equal to the number of chromosomes in each body cell?

  • (1) n n → n
  • (2) n n → 2n
  • (3) n 2n → 2n
  • (4) 2n 2n → 4n
Answer: (2) n n → 2n

19. One effect of uncontrolled diabetes is that the blood might develop an acidic pH. As a result, cells may not be able to regulate their internal pH. Within these cells, this could cause a disruption of the function of biological catalysts known as

  • (1) enzymes
  • (2) toxins
  • (3) antibodies
  • (4) antigens
Answer: (1) enzymes

20. A Native American saying states that, “We do not inherit the land we live on from our grandparents, we borrow it from our grandchildren.” This saying is an attempt to make us understand that

  • (1) the impact we have on the environment lasts for many generations
  • (2) we must pay a lot of money to buy land from our parents
  • (3) what we do today to the environment has little impact on our children
  • (4) human actions only affect other humans
Answer: (1) the impact we have on the environment lasts for many generations

21. Cells of the immune system are able to respond to the presence of invading organisms because they recognize the

  • (1) antigens present on the invaders
  • (2) antibodies present in invading pathogens
  • (3) DNA pattern in the nuclei of viruses
  • (4) antibiotics released from microbes
Answer: (1) antigens present on the invaders

22. Typhoid fever, a disease that causes headaches, digestive upset, and a high fever, is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Typhoid can be spread from person to person by contaminated water or food or by a lack of cleanliness. Since the 19th century, the number of individuals infected with this disease has decreased. Which statement best explains why the number of people with this disease and other bacterial diseases has decreased over the last 100 years?

  • (1) Scientists have corrected the damaged genes that cause typhoid fever and other infectious diseases.
  • (2) Public health officials have placed better controls on the use of the toxic substances that cause these diseases.
  • (3) Typhoid fever, like most other bacterial diseases, is often caused by a lack of proper nutrition.
  • (4) Personal habits, such as hand washing, have greatly reduced contamination from bacteria.
Answer: (4) Personal habits, such as hand washing, have greatly reduced contamination from bacteria.

23. Deforestation most directly results in

  • (1) an increase in oxygen in the atmosphere
  • (2) a decrease in soil erosion
  • (3) a decrease in biodiversity in the area
  • (4) an increase in the absorption of carbon dioxide
Answer: (3) a decrease in biodiversity in the area

24. In the California Mojave Desert, an energy company is building a large solar-power facility. It is expected to produce enough power for 140,000 homes and also cut carbon dioxide emissions by 500,000 tons a year. The facility will be built on 4,050 acres of wildlife habitat, which is near a protected refuge for a species of desert tortoise. The decision to build this power plant is most likely based on

  • (1) proving that positive atmospheric changes are less important than preserving wildlife
  • (2) a trade-off, weighing the need for a cleaner energy source versus the protection of a natural resource
  • (3) the fact that building these solar-power energy plants disrupts wildlife habitats
  • (4) providing evidence that technological advances always produce positive environmental impacts
Answer: (2) a trade-off, weighing the need for a cleaner energy source versus the protection of a natural resourcea

25. As a result of human activity, a significant percentage of the coral reefs in the oceans have been damaged. One-third of marine fish species depend on coral reefs for survival. Many of these fish might die. The most direct cause of the death of these fish would be

  • (1) habitat destruction
  • (2) direct harvesting
  • (3) recycling of nutrients
  • (4) use of nuclear fuels
Answer: (1) habitat destruction

26. Which statement best describes the role of decomposers?

  • (1) They convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose.
  • (2) They break down organic compounds into products used by other organisms.
  • (3) They release oxygen to the atmosphere.
  • (4) They provide energy for the synthesis of proteins.
Answer: (2) They break down organic compounds into products used by other organisms.

27. Many scientists are worried about some of Earth’s finite resources because humans are

  • (1) using carbon dioxide faster than it is being produced
  • (2) placing industrial wastes in landfills
  • (3) interfering with energy flow from consumers to producers
  • (4) using large amounts of some materials that cannot be renewed
Answer: (4) using large amounts of some materials that cannot be renewed

28. Many communities have started programs to dispose of evergreen trees after the holiday season. These programs allow individuals to bring these trees to be shredded, and the resulting chips are spread around parks and recreational areas as mulch. These programs benefit the environment by

  • (1) increasing pollution in parks
  • (2) taking up more space in landfills
  • (3) returning materials to the environment
  • (4) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Answer: (3) returning materials to the environment

29. Modern dogs are direct descendants of the gray wolf. They first appeared about 130,000 years ago. Today, there are about 150 different breeds of domestic dog, a few of which are shown below.

Living Environment August 2013

The great variety of modern dogs can best be explained by

  • (1) selective breeding of dogs over many years
  • (2) the cloning of domestic dogs
  • (3) genetic alterations in gray wolves alive today
  • (4) natural selection favoring wolves over dogs
Answer: (1) selective breeding of dogs over many years 

30. The diagram below shows an alteration that occurred during the replication process of a portion of a gene. The numbers identify the locations of specific bases in the sequence.

Living Environment August 2013

This alteration is most likely the result of

  • (1) a substitution at base 2
  • (2) a deletion of base 2
  • (3) an insertion of base 3
  • (4) a deletion of base 4
Answer: (4) a deletion of base 4

 

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