Living Environment June 2013 Questions Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Tuesday, June 11, 2013 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Fish absorb oxygen through the gills, earthworms absorb oxygen through the skin, amebas take in oxygen through the cell membranes, and cows inhale oxygen through the nasal passages into their lungs. This statement demonstrates that living things
- (1) rely on similar or the same processes, but accomplish them in different ways
- (2) rely on different processes and accomplish them in different ways
- (3) rely on different processes, but perform them in the same or related ways
- (4) have no relationship to one another, and are all independent individuals
2. In New York State, small farms that were abandoned many years ago have become hardwood forests. This is an example of
- (1) local deforestation
- (2) biotechnology
- (3) ecological succession
- (4) habitat loss
3. Goats have been genetically modified to produce an anticlotting protein in their milk. The protein is extracted from the milk and given to people who have inherited a disorder that causes their bodies to produce blood clots, which can be fatal. A benefit of the technology used to produce this protein is that it
- (1) can be used to overcome the effects of a harmful mutation
- (2) can provide people with a new kind of nutrient-rich milk
- (3) will result in healthier goats with more nutritious milk for their offspring
- (4) will reduce blood clots in other farm animals that are modified in this way
4. The diagram below represents factors that affect New York State ecosystems.
An increase in human activity at X would most likely result in
- (1) a decrease in rainfall in the area
- (2) a decrease in available carbon dioxide
- (3) an increase in air pollution in the area
- (4) an increase in the supply of fossil fuels
5. Which graph correctly represents the pattern of human population growth over the past 5000 years?
6. The fossil record of ancient life forms provides scientific evidence of
- (1) direct harvesting
- (2) selective breeding
- (3) gene manipulation
- (4) evolutionary changes
7. Spider plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually. The diagram below represents a spider plant reproducing asexually by a method known as vegetative propagation.
Which statement best describes the relationship between the parent plant and the offspring in the diagram?
- (1) The cells of the offspring contain half the amount of DNA as the cells of the parent plant.
- (2) The parent plant provides genetic material to the offspring through its gametes.
- (3) The cells of the offspring have the same genetic content as the cells of the parent plant.
- (4) The cells of the parent plant have more genetic diversity, compared to the cells of the offspring.
8. The processes of deletion, insertion, and substitution can alter genes in a skin cell. The altered genes will most likely be passed on to
- (1) sperm cells
- (2) egg cells
- (3) every cell that develops from that skin cell
- (4) only a few of the cells that develop from that skin cell
9. Before starch can enter a cell, it must be
- (1) absorbed by simple sugars
- (2) diffused into simple sugars
- (3) digested to form simple sugars
- (4) actively transported by simple sugars
10. In a cell, protein synthesis is the primary function of
- (1) ribosomes
- (2) mitochondria
- (3) chloroplasts
- (4) vacuoles
11. In a multicellular organism, organs carry out a variety of life functions. In a single-celled organism, these functions are performed by
- (1) tissues
- (2) organelles
- (3) organ systems
- (4) organs
12. Chlorophyll gives plants their green color. Chlorophyll is produced only when plants are exposed to light, so plants kept in darkness have no chlorophyll and appear white. The best explanation for this is that
- (1) chlorophyll is not needed by green plants at night
- (2) darkness mutates the chlorophyll genes, causing them to produce a white color
- (3) light is required for chlorophyll genes to be expressed
- (4) genetic information in cells is not influenced by the outside environment
13. In order for the human body to maintain homeostasis, the breakdown of glucose to release energy must be followed by the
- (1) production of oxygen
- (2) division of the cell
- (3) removal of wastes
- (4) production of receptor molecules
14. In the past, humans developed varieties of dogs, such as the German shepherd and the bearded collie, using
- (1) selective breeding for particular traits
- (2) recombination of genes during mitosis
- (3) mutations present only in body cells
- (4) natural selection of favorable traits
15. In an organism, a muscle cell has the same DNA as a nerve cell, yet the cells perform different functions. This is possible because
- (1) different mutations occur in each cell type, changing the genetic instructions
- (2) temperature variations within the body alter DNA
- (3) proteins in each cell type change the structure of DNA
- (4) different parts of the genetic instructions are used in each type of cell
16. Which sequence best represents sexual reproduction?
- (1) mitosis → gametes → zygote → fertilization
- (2) gametes → meiosis → mitosis → fertilization
- (3) fertilization → gametes → meiosis → zygote
- (4) meiosis → gametes → fertilization → zygote
17. The reproductive system of a male mammal provides
- (1) support for the internal development of the embryo
- (2) materials through the placenta
- (3) a means for the delivery of gametes
- (4) the ovaries for gamete production
18. The energy used to obtain, transfer, and transport materials within an organism comes directly from
- (1) ATP
- (2) DNA
- (3) sunlight
- (4) starch
19. The failure of the human body to effectively maintain dynamic equilibrium can result in
- (1) reproductive success
- (2) gene manipulation
- (3) differentiation
- (4) disease
20. Melanoma is a type of cancer in which abnormal skin cells divide uncontrollably. Some chemotherapy drugs, which stop the growth of the cancer, directly interfere with the process of
- (1) meiosis
- (2) coordination
- (3) mitosis
- (4) recombination
21. Riding a bicycle requires balance and constant adjustment and monitoring by the rider in order to continue cycling. Successfully riding a bicycle most directly results from the ability to
- (1) sexually reproduce
- (2) grow and develop
- (3) detect and respond to change
- (4) metabolize food for energy
22. The first successful transplant of insulinproducing cells from a living donor pancreas was completed in April 2000 in Japan. This enabled the body of the recipient to
- (1) regulate fat concentration by a feedback mechanism
- (2) provide protection against an infectious disease
- (3) slow down the heart rate after a period of activity ends
- (4) maintain blood sugar levels throughout the day
23. A study was done on three different fish species living in a pond in New York State. The influence of temperature on the growth rates of the fish populations is shown in the graph below.
In this pond where these fish live, temperature is a
- (1) limiting factor
- (2) hereditary factor
- (3) source of ATP
- (4) source of solar energy
24. A 6-year-old child ate a peanut butter sandwich at snack time in school. Five minutes later, her throat became swollen and she collapsed. This allergic reaction occurred because her body
- (1) recognized an antigen in peanut butter and produced antibiotics against it
- (2) digested the white blood cells that can recognize an antigen in peanut butter
- (3) did not recognize an antigen in peanut butter and could not produce antibodies against it
- (4) recognized an antigen in peanut butter and produced an immune response
25. Which type of organism helps to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide?
- (1) carnivores
- (2) producers
- (3) decomposers
- (4) herbivores
26. Which statement best describes an ecosystem maintaining a state of approximate equilibrium?
- (1) Nutrients from decayed organisms are recycled in a forest ecosystem.
- (2) All the frog species in a South American rain forest become extinct.
- (3) A mutation spreads through a species of bacterium, making them unable to decompose wastes.
- (4) Mice are released into a field ecosystem as food for a declining predator population.
27. In some parts of the world, forests are being cut down and burned to clear land for new homes and new farmland. A negative effect of these activities might be
- (1) an increase in global warming
- (2) destruction of the ozone shield
- (3) a decrease in the average temperature of the atmosphere
- (4) an increase in biodiversity of the deforested areas
28. The photograph below shows two penguins of the same species displaying different feather color patterns.
The newly discovered all-black penguin had only black feathers since emerging from the egg. The sudden appearance of this characteristic was most likely due to
- (1) a change in environmental conditions
- (2) deposition of oil on the feathers due to pollution
- (3) a random change in the sequences of bases in DNA
- (4) a change in the diet of the penguin chick
29. The diagram below represents different stages of an ecosystem over a period of time.
Which stage of the ecosystem has the greatest long-term stability?
- (1) A
- (3) C
- (2) B
- (4) D
30. The diagram below represents the same field of mice hunted by a hawk over a period of three months.
The overall changes in the population of mice can be explained best by
- (1) natural selection
- (2) succession
- (3) reproduction
- (4) mouse extinction
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