Living Environment June 2012

Living Environment June 2012 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Tuesday, June 19, 2012 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name ____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. One characteristic of all living things is that they

  • (1) develop organ systems
  • (2) produce identical offspring
  • (3) maintain internal stability
  • (4) synthesize only inorganic matter
Answer: (3) maintain internal stability

2. The diagram below represents interactions between organisms in a stable ecosystem.

Living Environment June 2012

Which statement correctly describes organisms in this ecosystem?

  • (1) Organisms in level B obtain their energy directly from the Sun.
  • (2) Organisms in level C obtain their nutrients directly from organisms in level D.
  • (3) Organisms in level A are herbivores.
  • (4) Organisms in level D are heterotrophic.
Answer: (4) Organisms in level D are heterotrophic.

3. Due to overfishing, the number of fish in the ocean could drastically decrease. This will cause

  • (1) an increase in the stability of the oceans
  • (2) an increase in the salt content of the oceans
  • (3) a decrease in the stability of the oceans
  • (4) a decrease in the oxygen available in the oceans
Answer: (3) a decrease in the stability of the oceans 

4. Which substance can enter a cell by diffusion without having to be digested?

  • (1) water
  • (2) protein
  • (3) starch
  • (4) fat
Answer: (1) water 

5. A single-celled organism is represented below.

Living Environment June 2012

Structure X carries out a function most similar to which structure in a human?

  • (1) lung
  • (2) brain
  • (3) ovary
  • (4) heart
Answer: (1) lung

6. Parrots are tropical birds. However, in some areas of New York City, some parrots have been able to survive outdoors year-round. These parrots survive, while most others cannot, due to

  • (1) overproduction of offspring
  • (2) extinction of previous species
  • (3) asexual reproduction of parrots with a mutation
  • (4) a variation that allows these parrots to live in colder climates
Answer: (4) a variation that allows these parrots to live in colder climates

7. Changing one base in a gene could have the most direct effect on the

  • (1) function of the membrane of a cell
  • (2) sequence of building blocks of a protein found in a cell
  • (3) number of mitochondria in a cell
  • (4) type of carbohydrates synthesized by a cell
Answer: (2) sequence of building blocks of a protein found in a cell 

8 An alteration of genetic information is shown below.

A-G-T-A-C-C-G-A-T → A-G-T-G-A-T

This type of alteration of the genetic information is an example of

  • (1) delzetion
  • (2) insertion
  • (3) substitution
  • (4) recombination
Answer: (1) delzetion

9. The table below shows adaptations in two organisms.

Living Environment June 2012

The presence of these adaptations is most likely the result of

  • (1) reproductive technology
  • (2) natural selection
  • (3) asexual reproduction
  • (4) human interference
Answer: (2) natural selection

10. The diagram below represents an activity that occurs in the human body

Living Environment June 2012

This diagram best illustrates

  • (1) active transport
  • (2) maintenance of homeostasis
  • (3) synthesis of nutrients
  • (4) differentiation
Answer: (2) maintenance of homeostasis

11. In which row in the chart below is a human action correctly paired with its environmental impact?

Living Environment June 2012

12. A laboratory technique is represented in the diagram below. Letter A represents a process.

Living Environment June 2012

Which specific chemicals are needed to successfully carry out the process shown at A?

  • (1) receptor molecules
  • (2) carbohydrates
  • (3) enzymes
  • (4) starch molecules
Answer: (3) enzymes

13. The diagram below represents genetic material.

Living Environment June 2012

The expression of the section labeled X may be modified by

  • (1) temperature, only
  • (2) asexual reproduction
  • (3) the environment
  • (4) pH, only
Answer: (3) the environment

14. Characteristics that are harmful to a species tend to decrease in frequency from generation to generation because these characteristics usually

  • (1) have a high survival value for the species
  • (2) have a low survival value for the species
  • (3) are inherited by more individuals
  • (4) affect only the older members of the population
Answer: (2) have a low survival value for the species

15. Which situation results in a characteristic that is inheritable?

  • (1) A limb is lost when two marine organisms fight.
  • (2) A puppy learns to beg for food by watching an older dog perform tricks.
  • (3) A gene is inserted into a bacterium, allowing the organism to produce insulin.
  • (4) A random mutation causes the immediate death of a microbe.
Answer: (3) A gene is inserted into a bacterium, allowing the organism to produce insulin.

16. Which statement best describes bat populations in a stable ecosystem?

  • (1) They are held in check by environmental factors.
  • (2) They are producers that rely indirectly on other producers.
  • (3) They are not limited by natural predators.
  • (4) They are not dependent on other species.
Answer: (1) They are held in check by environmental factors.

17. Which characteristic of a geographic region would have the greatest influence on the type of ecosystem that forms in that region?

  • (1) ratio of autotrophs to heterotrophs
  • (2) concentration of atmospheric oxygen
  • (3) number of food chains
  • (4) climatic conditions
Answer: (4) climatic conditions

18. A scientist claimed that he had cloned a guinea pig to produce two offspring, a male and a female. The claim is not valid because

  • (1) guinea pigs can reproduce both sexually and asexually
  • (2) the two offspring are not identical copies of the original guinea pig
  • (3) each of the offspring had half the genetic information of the original guinea pig
  • (4) none of the genetic information came from the original guinea pig
Answer: (2) the two offspring are not identical copies of the original guinea pig

19. The major function of the placenta is to

  • (1) cushion the fetus so it won’t be hurt when the mother moves
  • (2) exchange food, oxygen, and waste between mother and fetus
  • (3) store food for the fetus
  • (4) support the egg for the process of fertilization
Answer: (2) exchange food, oxygen, and waste between mother and fetusg

20. During the process of photosynthesis, energy from the Sun is converted into

  • (1) chemical energy in the bonds of inorganic molecules
  • (2) chemical energy in the bonds of organic molecules
  • (3) enzymes used to produce inorganic molecules
  • (4) enzymes used to produce organic molecules
Answer: (2) chemical energy in the bonds of organic molecules

21. A pesticide that kills an insect by interfering with the production of proteins in the insect would most directly affect the activity of

  • (1) ribosomes
  • (2) minerals
  • (3) chloroplasts
  • (4) mitochondria
Answer: (1) ribosomes

22. When two different bird species temporarily occupy the same niche, they would most likely

  • (1) change their nesting behaviors
  • (2) not affect one another
  • (3) interbreed to form a new species
  • (4) compete with one another
Answer: (4) compete with one another

23. Which group would most likely be represented in a food chain?

  • (1) biotic factors
  • (2) abiotic factors
  • (3) inorganic compounds
  • (4) finite resources
Answer: (1) biotic factors

24. Which statement describes a similarity between all enzymes, antibodies, and hormones?

  • (1) Their chemical structure is critical to their ability to function.
  • (2) Their ability to replicate identical copies ensures continuation of the species.
  • (3) They work better at 100°C than 37°C.
  • (4) They are made by and carried by the blood.
Answer: (1) Their chemical structure is critical to their ability to function.

25. The diagram below represents a cycling of materials.

Living Environment June 2012

Which row in the chart below shows the substances represented by X and Y?

Living Environment June 2012
Answer: (3) X – carbon dioxide, Y – oxygen.

26. Over a long period of time, the stages represented in the diagram below were each present in a particular ecosystem.

Living Environment June 2012

After a forest fire, what is the most likely order in which these stages appeared?

  • (1) D → C → A → B
  • (2) B → D → C → A
  • (3) A → B → C → D
  • (4) B → C → D → A
Answer: (2) B → D → C → A

27. A ski resort installed a wind turbine similar to those represented below to supply some of its energy needs.

Living Environment June 2012

This turbine was most likely installed because wind power is

  • (1) renewable and does substantial damage to the atmosphere
  • (2) renewable and does minimal damage to the atmosphere
  • (3) nonrenewable and does substantial damage to the atmosphere
  • (4) nonrenewable and does minimal damage to the atmosphere
Answer: (2) renewable and does minimal damage to the atmosphere

28. Which activity would reduce biodiversity in a forest ecosystem?

  • (1) adding plants that are naturally resistant to insects
  • (2) protecting wildflowers from logging activities
  • (3) replacing harvested trees with young trees that are naturally found in the forest
  • (4) clearing a large area and planting one species of hardwood tree that can be used for lumb
Answer: (4) clearing a large area and planting one species of hardwood tree that can be used for lumb

29. An increase in the amount of ultraviolet light entering the atmosphere through holes in the ozone layer will most likely

  • (1) reduce the rate of photosynthesis in fungi
  • (2) result in rapid recycling of finite resources
  • (3) prevent animal migration
  • (4) cause an increase in the rate of certain mutations
Answer: (4) cause an increase in the rate of certain mutations

30. Many scientists suggest that billions of years ago, life on Earth began with

  • (1) simple, single-celled organisms
  • (2) simple, multicellular organisms
  • (3) complex, single-celled organisms
  • (4) complex, multicellular organisms
Answer: (1) simple, single-celled organisms 

 

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