Living Environment June 2011 Question Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Tuesday, June 21, 2011 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Which phrase is an example of autotrophic nutrition?
- (1) a cow eating grass in a field
- (2) a mushroom digesting a dead log
- (3) an apple tree making its own food
- (4) a tapeworm feeding in the body of a dog
2. The ability of estrogen to affect certain cells depends directly on
- (1) amino acids
- (2) receptor molecules
- (3) gametes
- (4) nerve cells
3. By studying the chemicals in rare plants that grow only in rain forests, scientists hope to discover new life-saving medicines. Chances of finding such new medicines are reduced by
- (1) predation by carnivores
- (2) homeostasis in organisms
- (3) recycling of materials in food webs
- (4) loss of species due to human activities
4. When a species includes organisms with a wide variety of traits, it is most likely that this species will have
- (1) a high proportion of individuals immune to genetic diseases
- (2) a greater chance to survive if environmental conditions suddenly change
- (3) less success competing for resources
- (4) limitless supplies of important resources, such as food and water
5. Some diseases and their causes are listed below.
A. Flu—influenza virus
B. Lung cancer—smoking
C. Cystic fibrosis—genes
D. Dysentery—parasitic ameba
Which disease would individuals have the greatest difficulty preventing in themselves?
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
6. The diagram below represents the banding pattern for human chromosome 11, with some of the bands labeled.
The bands represent
- (1) proteins
- (2) genes
- (3) starches
- (4) enzymes
7. A liver cell can make enzymes that a heart cell can not make because liver cells
- (1) digest large, complex molecules
- (2) contain more DNA than heart cells
- (3) use different genes than the heart cells use
- (4) remove carbon dioxide from blood
8. As male children get older, some begin to closely resemble their fathers and have no resemblance to their mothers. Which statement best explains this observation?
- (1) Several sperm fertilized the egg, so the fertilized egg contained more genes from their father.
- (2) More genes are inherited from the sperm cell of their father than from the egg cell of their mother, so most traits will be like those of their father.
- (3) More genes from their father are expressed in traits that can be seen, and more genes from their mother are expressed in traits that cannot be seen, such as blood type or enzyme function.
- (4) Genes from their father are stronger than genes from their mother, so the genes from their mother are not expressed.
9. Which row in the chart below contains a cell structure paired with its primary function?
10 Which sequence represents the levels of biological organization from smallest to largest?
- (1) organism → cell → tissue → organelle → organ system → organ
- (2) organ system → organ → organism → cell → tissue → organelle
- (3) organelle → organ system → cell → organism → tissue → organ
- (4) organelle → cell → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
11. The diagram below represents division of a cell that produces two daughter cells.
Which statement most likely describes the daughter cells produced?
- (1) The daughter cells will pass on only half of the genetic information they received from the original cell.
- (2) The daughter cells will each produce offspring that will have the same genetic information as the original cell.
- (3) The daughter cells will each undergo the same mutations as the original cell after reproduction has occurred.
- (4) The daughter cells will not pass on any of the genes that they received from the original cell.
12. Which concept is best represented in the diagram below?
- (1) random mutations
- (2) ecological succession
- (3) genetic engineering
- (4) direct harvesting
13. The cells that make up leaves on a tree are genetically identical, yet the leaves often have different shapes and sizes, as shown in the diagram below
Which statement best explains this difference in leaf appearance?
- (1) The leaves at the top of the tree get more sunlight, causing the genes in their cells to be expressed differently.
- (2) The genes in the cells of leaves at the top of the tree are destroyed by sunlight, causing the leaves to stop growing.
- (3) The leaves near the bottom of the tree have more genes related to leaf size, causing them to grow larger.
- (4) The genes in the cells of leaves near the bottom of the tree increase in number, causing them to grow even larger.
14. Selective breeding is a technique that is used to
- (1) give all organisms a chance to reproduce
- (2) produce organisms from extinct species
- (3) produce offspring with certain desirable traits
- (4) keep farm crops free of all mutations
15. On hot, dry days, guard cells often close microscopic openings in plant leaves, conserving water. This is an example of
- (1) environmental factors causing gene mutation in plants
- (2) finite resources acting as selecting agents for evolution
- (3) a feedback mechanism for maintaining homeostasis
- (4) differentiation in plants as a result of stimuli
16. The diagram below represents a portion of a DNA molecule.
The letters represent different types of
- (1) sugar molecules
- (2) molecular bases
- (3) enzymes
- (4) proteins
17. Cotton plants produce seeds that contain high-quality protein. This protein could be used as a food source except that the seeds are poisonous to humans. Recently, scientists have inserted a section of DNA into the cotton plants that makes the cotton seeds nonpoisonous. The technique for this procedure is known as
- (1) gene manipulation
- (2) cloning
- (3) reproduction
- (4) direct harvesting
18. Which mutation in a fruit fly could be passed on to its offspring?
- (1) a mutation in a cell of an eye that changes the color of the eye
- (2) a mutation in a leg cell that causes the leg to be shorter
- (3) a mutation in a sperm cell that changes the shape of the wing
- (4) a mutation in a cell of the digestive tract that produces a different enzyme
19. Which process initially provides the link between an abiotic factor and the energy needs of an entire ecosystem?
- (1) respiration
- (2) photosynthesis
- (3) decomposition
- (4) predation
20. Buffalo grass is a species of plant found on the grazing prairies of Wyoming. It is a tough grass that has silicates (compounds containing oxygen and silicon) that reinforce its leaves. For hundreds of years, this grass has survived in an adverse environment. Which statement best explains the presence of this grass today?
- (1) There are no variations in this grass species that help it to survive in an adverse environment.
- (2) Silicates are necessary for photosynthesis.
- (3) The current species has no mutations.
- (4) The silicates in the grass have given the species an advantage in its environment.
21. The bud shown in the diagram below was produced by asexual reproduction.
Which process is responsible for the formation of the bud?
- (1) fertilization
- (2) recombination
- (3) mitosis
- (4) meiosis
22. The temporary storage of energy in ATP molecules is part of which process?
- (1) cell division
- (2) cellular respiration
- (3) protein synthesis
- (4) DNA replication
23. A function of white blood cells is to
- (1) transport oxygen to body cells
- (2) produce hormones that regulate cell communication
- (3) carry glucose to body cells
- (4) protect the body against pathogens
24. Competition for biotic resources can be illustrated by organisms fighting for a limited amount of
- (1) air to breathe
- (2) water to drink
- (3) mates for breeding
- (4) space for nesting
25. Many biological catalysts, hormones, and receptor molecules are similar in that, in order to function properly, they must
- (1) interact with each other at a high pH
- (2) interact with molecules that can alter their specific bonding patterns
- (3) contain amino acid chains that fold into a specific shape
- (4) contain identical DNA base sequences
26. If only one type of tree is planted in an abandoned field, the ecosystem will
- (1) evolve quickly and become extinct
- (2) be unable to reach dynamic equilibrium
- (3) contain little genetic variability
- (4) be unable to cycle materials
27. Which organisms directly help to reduce overpopulation in a deer herd?
- (1) parasites and predators
- (2) parasites and scavengers
- (3) decomposers and predators
- (4) decomposers and consumers
28. In the human body, oxygen is absorbed by the lungs and nutrients are absorbed by the small intestine. In a single-celled organism, this absorption directly involves the
- (1) nucleus
- (2) chloroplasts
- (3) cell membrane
- (4) chromosomes
29. An earthworm lives and reproduces in the soil. It aerates the soil and adds organic material to it. The earthworm is a source of food for other organisms. All of these statements together best describe
- (1) a habitat
- (2) autotrophic nutrition
- (3) an ecological niche
- (4) competition
30. Depletion of nonrenewable resources is often a result of
- (1) environmental laws
- (2) human population growth
- (3) reforestation
- (4) recycling
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