Living Environment June 2009 Questions Answer Keys

Living Environment June 2009 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Thursday, June 18, 2009 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only

Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Which statement best describes one of the stages represented in the diagram below?

Living Environment June 2009
  • (1) The mature forest will most likely be stable over a long period of time.
  • (2) If all the weeds and grasses are destroyed, the number of carnivores will increase.
  • (3) As the population of the shrubs increases, it will be held in check by the mature forest community.
  • (4) The young forest community will invade and take over the mature forest community
Answer: (1) The mature forest will most likely be stable over a long period of time. 

2. Which organ system in humans is most directly involved in the transport of oxygen?

  • (1) digestive
  • (2) nervous
  • (3) excretory
  • (4) circulatory
Answer: (4) circulatory 

3. Which cell structure contains information needed for protein synthesis?

Living Environment June 2009

4. The human liver contains many specialized cells that secrete bile. Only these cells produce bile because

  • (1) different cells use different parts of the genetic information they contain
  • (2) cells can eliminate the genetic codes that they do not need
  • (3) all other cells in the body lack the genes needed for the production of bile
  • (4) these cells mutated during embryonic development
Answer: (1) different cells use different parts of the genetic information they contain 

5. Although identical twins inherit exact copies of the same genes, the twins may look and act differently from each other because

  • (1) a mutation took place in the gametes that produced the twins
  • (2) the expression of genes may be modified by environmental factors
  • (3) the expression of genes may be different in males and females
  • (4) a mutation took place in the zygote that produced the twins
Answer: (2) the expression of genes may be modified by environmental factors 

6. Which hormone does not directly regulate human reproductive cycles?

  • (1) testosterone
  • (2) estrogen
  • (3) insulin
  • (4) progesterone
Answer: (3) insulin 

7. Owls periodically expel a mass of undigested material known as a pellet. A student obtained several owl pellets from the same location and examined the animal remains in the pellets. He then recorded the number of different prey animal remains in the pellets. The student was most likely studying the

  • (1) evolution of the owl
  • (2) social structure of the local owl population
  • (3) role of the owl in the local ecosystem
  • (4) life cycle of the owl
Answer: (3) role of the owl in the local ecosystem 

8. Which sequence best represents the relationship between DNA and the traits of an organism?

Living Environment June 2009

9. A sequence of events associated with ecosystem stability is represented below

sexual reproduction → genetic variation → biodiversity → ecosystem stability

The arrows in this sequence should be read as

  • (1) leads to
  • (2) reduces
  • (3) prevents
  • (4) simplifies
Answer: (1) leads to 

10. In some people, the lack of a particular enzyme causes a disease. Scientists are attempting to use bacteria to produce this enzyme for the treatment of people with the disease. Which row in the chart below best describes the sequence of steps the scientists would most likely follow?

Living Environment June 2009
Answer: (3) Step C 

11. What will most likely occur as a result of changes in the frequency of a gene in a particular population?

  • (1) ecological succession
  • (2) biological evolution
  • (3) global warming
  • (4) resource depletion
Answer: (2) biological evolution 

12. The puppies shown in the photograph below are all from the same litter.

Living Environment June 2009

The differences seen within this group of puppies are most likely due to

  • (1) overproduction and selective breeding
  • (2) mutations and elimination of genes
  • (3) evolution and asexual reproduction
  • (4) sorting and recombination of genes
Answer: (4) sorting and recombination of genes 

13. Carbon dioxide makes up less than 1 percent of Earth’s atmosphere, and oxygen makes up about 20 percent. These percentages are maintained most directly by

  • (1) respiration and photosynthesis
  • (2) the ozone shield
  • (3) synthesis and digestion
  • (4) energy recycling in ecosystems
Answer: (1) respiration and photosynthesis 

14. Which sequence represents the order of some events in human development?

  • (1) zygote → sperm → tissues → egg
  • (2) fetus → tissues → zygote → egg
  • (3) zygote → tissues → organs → fetus
  • (4) sperm → zygote → organs → tissues
Answer: (3) zygote → tissues → organs → fetus 

15. A variety of plant produces small white fruit. A stem was removed from this organism and planted in a garden. If this stem grows into a new plant, it would most likely produce

  • (1) large red fruit, only
  • (2) large pink fruit, only
  • (3) small white fruit, only
  • (4) small red and small white fruit on the same plant
Answer: (3) small white fruit, only 

16. A mutation that can be inherited by offspring would result from

  • (1) random breakage of chromosomes in the nucleus of liver cells
  • (2) a base substitution in gametes during meiosis
  • (3) abnormal lung cells produced by toxins in smoke
  • (4) ultraviolet radiation damage to skin cells
Answer: (2) a base substitution in gametes during meiosis 

17. The diagram below represents a process that occurs in organisms.

Living Environment June 2009

Which row in the chart indicates what A and B in the boxes could represent?

Living Environment June 2009
Answer: (3) A – Protein, B – amino acids 

18. Some organs of the human body are represented in the diagram below.

Living Environment June 2009

Which statement best describes the functions of these organs?

  • (1) B pumps blood to A for gas exchange.
  • (2) A and B both produce carbon dioxide, which provides nutrients for other body parts.
  • (3) A releases antibodies in response to an infection in B.
  • (4) The removal of wastes from both A and B involves the use of energy from ATP.
Answer: (4) The removal of wastes from both A and B involves the use of energy from ATP. 

19. Salmonella bacteria can cause humans to have stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. The effect these bacteria have on humans indicates that Salmonella bacteria are

  • (1) predators
  • (2) pathogenic organisms
  • (3) parasitic fungi
  • (4) decomposers
Answer: (2) pathogenic organisms 

20. The virus that causes AIDS is damaging to the body because it

  • (1) targets cells that fight invading microbes
  • (2) attacks specific red blood cells
  • (3) causes an abnormally high insulin level
  • (4) prevents the normal transmission of nerve impulses
Answer: (1) targets cells that fight invading microbes 

21. In the leaf of a plant, guard cells help to

  • (1) destroy atmospheric pollutants when they enter the plant
  • (2) regulate oxygen and carbon dioxide levels
  • (3) transport excess glucose to the roots
  • (4) block harmful ultraviolet rays that can disrupt chlorophyll production
Answer: (2) regulate oxygen and carbon dioxide levels 

22. An antibiotic is effective in killing 95% of a population of bacteria that reproduce by the process shown below.

Living Environment June 2009

Which statement best describes future generations of these bacteria?

  • (1) They will be produced by asexual reproduction and will be more resistant to the antibiotic.
  • (2) They will be produced by sexual reproduction and will be more resistant to the antibiotic.
  • (3) They will be produced by asexual reproduction and will be just as susceptible to the antibiotic.
  • (4) They will be produced by sexual reproduction and will be just as susceptible to the antibiotic.
Answer: (1) They will be produced by asexual reproduction and will be more resistant to the antibiotic. 

23. The size of plant populations can be influenced by the

  • (1) molecular structure of available oxygen
  • (2) size of the cells of decomposers
  • (3) number of chemical bonds in a glucose molecule
  • (4) type of minerals present in the soil
Answer: (4) type of minerals present in the soil 

24. Competition between two species occurs when

  • (1) mold grows on a tree that has fallen in the forest
  • (2) chipmunks and squirrels eat sunflower seeds in a garden
  • (3) a crow feeds on the remains of a rabbit killed on the road
  • (4) a lion stalks, kills, and eats an antelope
Answer: (2) chipmunks and squirrels eat sunflower seeds in a garden 

25. A food chain is illustrated below.

Living Environment June 2009

The arrows represented as most likely indicate

  • (1) energy released into the environment as heat
  • (2) oxygen produced by respiration
  • (3) the absorption of energy that has been synthesized
  • (4) the transport of glucose away from the organism
Answer: (1) energy released into the environment as heat 

26. If several species of carnivores are removed from an ecosystem, the most likely effect on the ecosystem will be

  • (1) an increase in the kinds of autotrophs
  • (2) a decrease in the number of abiotic factors
  • (3) a decrease in stability among populations
  • (4) an increase in the rate of succession
Answer: (3) a decrease in stability among populations 

27. Some people make compost piles consisting of weeds and other plant materials. When the compost has decomposed, it can be used as fertilizer. The production and use of compost is an example of

  • (1) the introduction of natural predators
  • (2) the use of fossil fuels
  • (3) the deforestation of an area
  • (4) the recycling of nutrients
Answer: (4) the recycling of nutrients

28. Which statement best describes a chromosome?

  • (1) It is a gene that has thousands of different forms.
  • (2) It has genetic information contained in DNA.
  • (3) It is a reproductive cell that influences more than one trait.
  • (4) It contains hundreds of genetically identical DNA molecules.
Answer: (2) It has genetic information contained in DNA.

29. The graph below shows how the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has changed over the last 150,000 years.

Living Environment June 2009

Which environmental factor has been most recently affected by these changes in carbon dioxide level?

  • (1) light intensity
  • (2) types of decomposers
  • (3) size of consumers
  • (4) atmospheric temperature
Answer: (4) atmospheric temperature

30. One reason why people should be aware of the impact of their actions on the environment is that

  • (1) ecosystems are never able to recover once they have been adversely affected
  • (2) the depletion of finite resources cannot be reversed
  • (3) there is a decreased need for new technology
  • (4) there is a decreased need for substances produced by natural processes
Answer: (2) the depletion of finite resources cannot be reversed

 

Living Environment June 2009 Questions Answers Keys

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