Living Environment June 2008

Living Environment June 2008 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Tuesday, June 24, 2008 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The chart below contains both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms.

Living Environment June 2008

Organisms that carry out only heterotrophic nutrition are found in

  • (1) row A, only
  • (2) row B, only
  • (3) rows A and B
  • (4) rows A and C
Answer: (1) row A, only 

2. A stable pond ecosystem would not contain

  • (1) materials being cycled
  • (2) oxygen
  • (3) decomposers
  • (4) more consumers than producers
Answer: (4) more consumers than producers

3. Although all of the cells of a human develop from one fertilized egg, the human is born with many different types of cells. Which statement best explains this observation?

  • (1) Developing cells may express different parts of their identical genetic instructions.
  • (2) Mutations occur during development as a result of environmental conditions.
  • (3) All cells have different genetic material.
  • (4) Some cells develop before other cells.
Answer: (1) Developing cells may express different parts of their identical genetic instructions. 

4. Humans require organ systems to carry out life processes. Single-celled organisms do not have organ systems and yet they are able to carry out life processes. This is because

  • (1) human organ systems lack the organelles found in single-celled organisms
  • (2) a human cell is more efficient than the cell of a single-celled organism
  • (3) it is not necessary for single-celled organisms to maintain homeostasis
  • (4) organelles present in single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to organ systems
Answer: (4) organelles present in single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to organ systems

5. Certain poisons are toxic to organisms because they interfere with the function of enzymes in mitochondria. This results directly in the inability of the cell to

  • (1) store information
  • (2) build proteins
  • (3) release energy from nutrients
  • (4) dispose of metabolic wastes
Answer: (3) release energy from nutrients

6. At warm temperatures, a certain bread mold can often be seen growing on bread as a dark-colored mass. The same bread mold growing on bread in a cooler environment is red in color. Which statement most accurately describes why this change in the color of the bread mold occurs?

  • (1) Gene expression can be modified by inter – actions with the environment.
  • (2) Every organism has a different set of coded instructions.
  • (3) The DNA was altered in response to an environmental condition.
  • (4) There is no replication of genetic material in the cooler environment.
Answer: (1) Gene expression can be modified by inter – actions with the environment.

7. Asexually reproducing organisms pass on hereditary information as

  • (1) sequences of A, T, C, and G
  • (2) chains of complex amino acids
  • (3) folded protein molecules
  • (4) simple inorganic sugars
Answer: (1) sequences of A, T, C, and G

8. Species of bacteria can evolve more quickly than species of mammals because bacteria have

  • (1) less competition
  • (2) more chromosomes
  • (3) lower mutation rates
  • (4) higher rates of reproduction
Answer: (4) higher rates of reproduction

9. The diagram below represents the synthesis of a portion of a complex molecule in an organism

Living Environment June 2008

Which row in the chart could be used to identify the building blocks and product in the diagram?

Living Environment June 2008
Answer: (2) amino acid molecules 

10. Which diagram best represents the relative locations of the structures in the list below?

A–chromosome
B–nucleus
C–cell
D–gene

Living Environment June 2008
Answer: (2) ABC 

11. Which nuclear process is represented below?

A DNA molecule → The two strands of → Molecular bases → Two identical DNA
untwists. DNA separate. pair up. molecules are produced.

  • (1) recombination
  • (2) fertilization
  • (3) replication
  • (4) mutation
Answer: (3) replication

12. For centuries, certain animals have been crossed to produce offspring that have desirable qualities. Dogs have been mated to produce Labradors, beagles, and poodles. All of these dogs look and behave very differently from one another. This technique of producing organisms with specific qualities is known as

  • (1) gene replication
  • (2) natural selection
  • (3) random mutation
  • (4) selective breeding
Answer: (4) selective breeding

13. Certain insects resemble the bark of the trees on which they live. Which statement provides a possible biological explanation for this resemblance?

  • (1) The insects needed camouflage so they developed protective coloration.
  • (2) Natural selection played a role in the development of this protective coloration.
  • (3) The lack of mutations resulted in the protective coloration.
  • (4) The trees caused mutations in the insects that resulted in protective coloration
Answer: (2) Natural selection played a role in the development of this protective coloration.

14. When is extinction of a species most likely to occur?

  • (1) when environmental conditions remain the same and the proportion of individuals within the species that lack adaptive traits increases
  • (2) when environmental conditions remain the same and the proportion of individuals within the species that possess adaptive traits increases
  • (3) when environmental conditions change and the adaptive traits of the species favor the survival and reproduction of some of its members
  • (4) when environmental conditions change and the members of the species lack adaptive traits to survive and reproduce
Answer: (4) when environmental conditions change and the members of the species lack adaptive traits to survive and reproduce

15. In what way are photosynthesis and cellular respiration similar?

  • (1) They both occur in chloroplasts.
  • (2) They both require sunlight.
  • (3) They both involve organic and inorganic molecules.
  • (4) They both require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.
Answer: (3) They both involve organic and inorganic molecules.

16. Which process will increase variations that could be inherited?

  • (1) mitotic cell division
  • (2) active transport
  • (3) recombination of genes
  • (4) synthesis of proteins
Answer: (3) recombination of genes

17. Some cells involved in the process of reproduction are represented in the diagram below.

Living Environment June 2008

The process of meiosis formed

  • (1) cell 1, only
  • (2) cells 1 and 2
  • (3) cell 3, only
  • (4) cells 2 and 3
Answer: (2) cells 1 and 2

18. Kangaroos are mammals that lack a placenta. Therefore, they must have an alternate way of supplying the developing embryo with

  • (1) nutrients
  • (2) carbon dioxide
  • (3) enzymes
  • (4) genetic information
Answer: (1) nutrients

19. Which substance is the most direct source of the energy that an animal cell uses for the synthesis of materials?

  • (1) ATP
  • (2) glucose
  • (3) DNA
  • (4) starch
Answer: (1) ATP 

20. To increase chances for a successful organ transplant, the person receiving the organ should be given special medications. The purpose of these medications is to

  • (1) increase the immune response in the person receiving the transplant
  • (2) decrease the immune response in the person receiving the transplant
  • (3) decrease mutations in the person receiving the transplant
  • (4) increase mutations in the person receiving the transplant
Answer: (2) decrease the immune response in the person receiving the transplant

21. The diagram below represents the cloning of a carrot plant.

Living Environment June 2008

Compared to each cell of the original carrot plant, each cell of the new plant will have

  • (1) the same number of chromosomes and the same types of genes
  • (2) the same number of chromosomes, but different types of genes
  • (3) half the number of chromosomes and the same types of genes
  • (4) half the number of chromosomes, but different types of genes
Answer: (1) the same number of chromosomes and the same types of genes

22. The development of an embryo is represented in the diagram below.

Living Environment June 2008

These changes in the form of the embryo are a direct result of

  • (1) uncontrolled cell division and mutations
  • (2) differentiation and growth
  • (3) antibodies and antigens inherited from the father
  • (4) meiosis and fertilization
Answer: (2) differentiation and growth

23. The diagram below represents an event that occurs in the blood.

Living Environment June 2008

Which statement best describes this event?

  • (1) Cell A is a white blood cell releasing antigens to destroy bacteria.
  • (2) Cell A is a cancer cell produced by the immune system and it is helping to prevent disease.
  • (3) Cell A is a white blood cell engulfing diseasecausing organisms.
  • (4) Cell A is protecting bacteria so they can reproduce without being destroyed by predators.
Answer: (3) Cell A is a white blood cell engulfing diseasecausing organisms.

24. In an ecosystem, the growth and survival of organisms are dependent on the availability of the energy from the Sun. This energy is available to organisms in the ecosystem because

  • (1) producers have the ability to store energy from light in organic molecules
  • (2) consumers have the ability to transfer chemical energy stored in bonds to plants
  • (3) all organisms in a food web have the ability to use light energy
  • (4) all organisms in a food web feed on autotrophs.
Answer: (1) producers have the ability to store energy from light in organic molecules

25. Which factor has the greatest influence on the type of ecosystem that will form in a particular geographic area?

  • (1) genetic variations in the animals
  • (2) climate conditions
  • (3) number of carnivores
  • (4) percentage of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere
Answer: (2) climate conditions

26. Farming reduces the natural biodiversity of an area, yet farms are necessary to feed the world’s human population. This situation is an example of

  • (1) poor land use
  • (2) a trade-off
  • (3) conservation
  • (4) a technological fix
Answer: (2) a trade-off

27. A food chain is represented below.

Grass → Cricket → Frog → Owl

This food chain contains

  • (1) 4 consumers and no producers
  • (2) 1 predator, 1 parasite, and 2 producers
  • (3) 2 carnivores and 2 herbivores
  • (4) 2 predators, 1 herbivore, and 1 producer
Answer: (4) 2 predators, 1 herbivore, and 1 producer

28. A volcanic eruption destroyed a forest, covering the soil with volcanic ash. For many years, only small plants could grow. Slowly, soil formed in which shrubs and trees could grow. These changes are an example of

  • (1) manipulation of genes
  • (2) evolution of a species
  • (3) ecological succession
  • (4) equilibrium
Answer: (3) ecological succession

29. A major reason that humans can have such a significant impact on an ecological community is that humans

  • (1) can modify their environment through technology
  • (2) reproduce faster than most other species
  • (3) are able to increase the amount of finite resources available
  • (4) remove large amounts of carbon dioxide from the air
Answer: (1) can modify their environment through technology

30. Rabbits are herbivores that are not native to Australia. Their numbers have increased steadily since being introduced into Australia by European settlers. One likely reason the rabbit population was able to grow so large is that the rabbits

  • (1) were able to prey on native herbivores
  • (2) reproduced more slowly than the native animals
  • (3) successfully competed with native herbivores for food
  • (4) could interbreed with the native animals
Answer: (4) could interbreed with the native animals

Living Environment June 2008 Questions Answers Keys

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