Living Environment June 2006 Questions Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Wednesday, June 21, 2006 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The diagram below represents levels of organization in living things.
Which term would best represent X?
- (1) human
- (2) tissue
- (3) stomach
- (4) organelle
2. The evolutionary pathways of ten different species are represented in the diagram below.
Which two species are the most closely related?
- (1) C and D
- (2) E and I
- (3) G and J
- (4) A and F
3. Which row in the chart below best describes the active transport of molecule X through a cell membrane?
4. Hereditary information is stored inside the
- (1) ribosomes, which have chromosomes that contain many genes
- (2) ribosomes, which have genes that contain many chromosomes
- (3) nucleus, which has chromosomes that contain many genes
- (4) nucleus, which has genes that contain many chromosomes
5. A human liver cell is very different in structure and function from a nerve cell in the same person. This is best explained by the fact that
- (1) different genes function in each type of cell
- (2) liver cells can reproduce while the nerve cells cannot
- (3) liver cells contain fewer chromosomes than nerve cells
- (4) different DNA is present in each type of cell
6. Most of the starch stored in the cells of a potato is composed of molecules that originally entered these cells as
- (1) enzymes
- (2) simple sugars
- (3) amino acids
- (4) minerals
7. Hereditary traits are transmitted from generation to generation by means of
- (1) specific sequences of bases in DNA in reproductive cells
- (2) proteins in body cells
- (3) carbohydrates in body cells
- (4) specific starches making up DNA in reproductive cells
8. Which process can produce new inheritable characteristics within a multicellular species?
- (1) cloning of the zygote
- (2) mitosis in muscle cells
- (3) gene alterations in gametes
- (4) differentiation in nerve cells
9. Which two processes result in variations that commonly influence the evolution of sexually reproducing species?
- (1) mutation and genetic recombination
- (2) mitosis and natural selection
- (3) extinction and gene replacement
- (4) environmental selection and selective breeding
10. The illustration below shows an insect resting on some green leaves.
The size, shape, and green color of this insect are adaptations that would most likely help the insect to
- (1) compete successfully with all birds
- (2) make its own food
- (3) hide from predators
- (4) avoid toxic waste materials
11. A food web is represented below.
Which statement best describes energy in this food web?
- (1) The energy content of level B depends on the energy content of level C.
- (2) The energy content of level A depends on energy provided from an abiotic source.
- (3) The energy content of level C is greater than the energy content of level A.
- (4) The energy content of level B is transferred to level A.
12. Which statement concerning proteins is not correct?
- (1) Proteins are long, usually folded, chains.
- (2) The shape of a protein molecule determines its function.
- (3) Proteins can be broken down and used for energy.
- (4) Proteins are bonded together, resulting in simple sugars.
13. All chemical breakdown processes in cells directly involve
- (1) reactions that are controlled by catalysts
- (2) enzymes that are stored in mitochondria
- (3) the production of catalysts in vacuoles
- (4) enzymes that have the same genetic base sequence
14. Steps in a reproductive process used to produce a sheep with certain traits are listed below.
Step 1 — The nucleus was removed from an unfertilized egg taken from sheep A.
Step 2 — The nucleus of a body cell taken from sheep B was then inserted into this unfertilized egg from sheep A.
Step 3 — The resulting cell was then implanted into the uterus of sheep C.
Step 4 — Sheep C gave birth to sheep D.
Which sheep would be most genetically similar to sheep D?
- (1) sheep A, only
- (2) sheep B, only
- (3) both sheep A and B
- (4) both sheep A and C
15. Which diagram best illustrates an event in sexual reproduction that would most directly lead to the formation of a human embryo?
16. Offspring that result from meiosis and fertilization each have
- (1) twice as many chromosomes as their parents
- (2) one-half as many chromosomes as their parents
- (3) gene combinations different from those of either parent
- (4) gene combinations identical to those of each parent
17. Which developmental process is represented by the diagram below?
- (1) fertilization
- (2) differentiation
- (3) evolution
- (4) mutation
18. The diagram below represents human reproductive systems.
Which statement best describes part of the human reproductive process?
- (1) Testosterone produced in A is transferred to D, where it influences embryonic development.
- (2) Testosterone produced in D influences formation of sperm within B.
- (3) Estrogen and progesterone influence the activity of C.
- (4) Progesterone stimulates the division of the egg within C.
19. Which order of metabolic processes converts nutrients consumed by an organism into cell parts?
- (1) digestion → absorption → circulation → diffusion → synthesis
- (2) absorption → circulation → digestion → diffusion → synthesis
- (3) digestion → synthesis → diffusion → circulation → absorption
- (4) synthesis → absorption → digestion → diffusion → circulation
20. The diagram below represents a cell organelle involved in the transfer of energy from organic compounds.
The arrows in the diagram could represent the release of
- (1) ATP from a chloroplast carrying out photosynthesis
- (2) oxygen from a mitochondrion carrying out photosynthesis
- (3) glucose from a chloroplast carrying out respiration
- (4) carbon dioxide from a mitochondrion carrying out respiration
21. Which process illustrates a feedback mechanism in plants?
- (1) Chloroplasts take in more nitrogen, which increases the rate of photosynthesis.
- (2) Chloroplasts release more oxygen in response to a decreased rate of photosynthesis.
- (3) Guard cells change the size of leaf openings, regulating the exchange of gases.
- (4) Guard cells release oxygen from the leaf at night.
22. Which human activity would have the most positive effect on the environment of an area?
- (1) using fire to eliminate most plants in the area
- (2) clearing the area to eliminate weed species
- (3) protecting native flowers and grasses in the area
- (4) introducing a foreign plant species to the area
23. What impact do the amounts of available energy, water, and oxygen have on an ecosystem?
- (1) They act as limiting factors.
- (2) They are used as nutrients.
- (3) They recycle the residue of dead organisms.
- (4) They control environmental temperature.
24. Many years ago, a volcanic eruption killed many plants and animals on an island. Today the island looks much as it did before the eruption. Which statement is the best possible explanation for this?
- (1) Altered ecosystems regain stability through the evolution of new plant species.
- (2) Destroyed environments can recover as a result of the process of ecological succession.
- (3) Geographic barriers prevent the migration of animals to island habitats.
- (4) Destroyed ecosystems always return to their original state.
25. The growth of a population is shown in the graph below.
Which letter indicates the carrying capacity of the environment for this population?
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
26. When habitats are destroyed, there are usually fewer niches for animals and plants. This action would most likely not lead to a change in the amount of
- (1) biodiversity
- (2) competition
- (3) interaction between species
- (4) solar radiation reaching the area
27. Which set of terms best identifies the letters in the diagram below?
28. The diagram below represents some energy transfers in an ecosystem.
Which type of organism is most likely represented by letter X?
- (1) decomposer
- (2) autotroph
- (3) producer
- (4) herbivore
29. Some farmers currently grow genetically engineered crops. An argument against the use of this technology is that
- (1) it increases crop production
- (2) it produces insect-resistant plants
- (3) its long-term effects on humans are still being investigated
- (4) it always results in crops that do not taste good
30. The removal of nearly all the predators from an ecosystem would most likely result in
- (1) an increase in the number of carnivore species
- (2) a decrease in new predators migrating into the ecosystem
- (3) a decrease in the size of decomposers
- (4) an increase in the number of herbivores
Living Environment June 2006 Questions Answers Keys
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