Living Environment June 2005 Questions Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Wednesday, June 22, 2005 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Researchers performing a well-designed experiment should base their conclusions on
- (1) the hypothesis of the experiment
- (2) data from repeated trials of the experiment
- (3) a small sample size to insure a reliable outcome of the experiment
- (4) results predicted before performing the experiment
2. In plants, simple sugars are least likely to be
- (1) linked together to form proteins
- (2) broken down into carbon dioxide and water
- (3) used as a source of energy
- (4) stored in the form of starch molecules
3. Which structures in diagram I and diagram II carry out a similar life function?
- (1) 1 and C
- (2) 2 and D
- (3) 3 and A
- (4) 4 and B
4. Plants inherit genes that enable them to produce chlorophyll, but this pigment is not produced unless the plants are exposed to light. This is an example of how the environment can
- (1) cause mutations to occur
- (2) influence the expression of a genetic trait
- (3) result in the appearance of a new species
- (4) affect one plant species, but not another
5. Synthesis of a defective protein may result from an alteration in
- (1) vacuole shape
- (2) the number of mitochondria
- (3) a base sequence code
- (4) cellular fat concentration
6. One variety of strawberry is resistant to a damaging fungus, but produces small fruit. Another strawberry variety produces large fruit, but is not resistant to the same fungus. The two desirable qualities may be combined in a new variety of strawberry plant by
- (1) cloning
- (2) asexual reproduction
- (3) direct harvesting
- (4) selective breeding
7. The largest amount of DNA in a plant cell is contained in
- (1) a nucleus
- (2) a chromosome
- (3) a protein molecule
- (4) an enzyme molecule
8. A product of genetic engineering technology is represented below
Which substance was needed to join the insulin gene to the bacterial DNA as shown?
- (1) a specific carbohydrate
- (2) a specific enzyme
- (3) hormones
- (4) antibodies
9. Which factor could be the cause of the other three in an animal species?
- (1) the inability of the species to adapt to changes
- (2) a lack of genetic variability in the species
- (3) extinction of the species
- (4) a decrease in the survival rate of the species
10. Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for each of the following except
- (1) the fossil record
- (2) protein and DNA similarities between different organisms
- (3) similar structures among different organisms
- (4) a stable physical environment
11. Which factor contributed most to the extinction of many species?
- (1) changes in the environment
- (2) lethal mutations
- (3) inability to evolve into simple organisms
- (4) changes in migration patterns
12. Meiosis and fertilization are important for the survival of many species because these two processes result in
- (1) large numbers of gametes
- (2) increasingly complex multicellular organisms
- (3) cloning of superior offspring
- (4) genetic variability of offspring
13. Reproduction in humans usually requires
- (1) the process of cloning
- (2) mitotic cell division of gametes
- (3) gametes with chromosomes that are not paired
- (4) the external fertilization of sex cells
14. The human reproductive system is regulated by
- (1) restriction enzymes
- (2) antigens
- (3) complex carbohydrates
- (4) hormones
15. The organism represented below is multicellular, heterotrophic, and completely aquatic.
Which other characteristics could be used to describe this organism?
- (1) carries out photosynthesis and needs oxygen
- (2) deposits cellular wastes on land and decomposes dead organisms
- (3) reproduces asexually and is a consumer
- (4) reproduces in a water habitat and is a producer
16. Which statement describes asexual reproduction?
- (1) Adaptive traits are usually passed from parent to offspring without genetic modification.
- (2) Mutations are not passed from generation to generation.
- (3) It always enables organisms to survive in changing environmental conditions.
- (4) It is responsible for many new variations in offspring.
17. Which group contains only molecules that are each assembled from smaller organic compounds?
- (1) proteins, water, DNA, fats
- (2) proteins, starch, carbon dioxide, water
- (3) proteins, DNA, fats, starch
- (4) proteins, carbon dioxide, DNA, starch
18. Most mammals have adaptations for
- (1) internal fertilization and internal development of the fetus
- (2) internal fertilization and external development of the fetus
- (3) external fertilization and external development of the fetus
- (4) external fertilization and internal development of the fetus
19. Which process provides the initial energy to support all the levels in the energy pyramid shown below?
- (1) circulation
- (2) photosynthesis
- (3) active transport
- (4) digestion
20. The diagram below represents a series of reactions that can occur in an organism.
This diagram best illustrates the relationship between
- (1) enzymes and synthesis
- (2) amino acids and glucose
- (3) antigens and immunity
- (4) ribosomes and sugars
21. The interaction between guard cells and a leaf opening would not be involved in
- (1) diffusion of carbon dioxide
- (2) maintaining homeostasis
- (3) heterotrophic nutrition
- (4) feedback mechanisms
22. The green aquatic plant represented in the diagram below was exposed to light for several hours.
Which gas would most likely be found in the greatest amount in the bubbles?
- (1) oxygen
- (2) nitrogen
- (3) ozone
- (4) carbon dioxide
23. The production of energy-rich ATP molecules is the direct result of
- (1) recycling light energy to be used in the process of photosynthesis
- (2) releasing the stored energy of organic compounds by the process of respiration
- (3) breaking down starch by the process of digestion
- (4) copying coded information during the process of protein synthesis
24. Water from nearby rivers or lakes is usually used to cool down the reactors in nuclear power plants. The release of this heated water back into the river or lake would most likely result in
- (1) an increase in the sewage content in the water
- (2) a change in the biodiversity in the water
- (3) a change in the number of mutations in plants growing near the water
- (4) a decrease in the amount of sunlight necessary for photosynthesis in the water
25. Which statement best describes the fruit fly population in the part of the curve labeled X in the graph shown below?
- (1) The fruit fly population has reached the number of organisms the habitat can support.
- (2) The fruit fly population can no longer mate and produce fertile offspring.
- (3) The fruit fly population has an average life span of 36 days.
- (4) The fruit fly population is no longer able to adapt to the changing environmental conditions.
26. Lichens and mosses are the first organisms to grow in an area. Over time, grasses and shrubs will grow where these organisms have been. The grasses and shrubs are able to grow in the area because the lichens and mosses
- (1) synthesize food needed by producers in the area
- (2) are at the beginning of every food chain in a community
- (3) make the environment suitable for complex plants
- (4) provide the enzymes needed for plant growth
27. The negative effect humans have on the stability of the environment is most directly linked to an increase in
- (1) recycling activities by humans
- (2) supply of finite resources
- (3) predation and disease
- (4) human population size
28. The ecological niches of three bird species are shown in the diagram below.
What is the advantage of each bird species having a different niche?
- (1) As the birds feed higher in the tree, available energy increases.
- (2) More abiotic resources are available for each bird.
- (3) Predators are less likely to feed on birds in a variety of locations.
- (4) There is less competition for food.
29. Which diagram best illustrates the relationship between humans (H) and ecosystems (E)?
30. The diagram below represents processes involved in human reproduction.
Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the processes represented by the letters in the diagram?
Living Environment June 2005 Questions Answers Keys
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