Living Environment June 2004

Living Environment June 2004 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Friday, June 18, 2004 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Cloning an individual usually produces organisms that

  • (1) contain dangerous mutations
  • (2) contain identical genes
  • (3) are identical in appearance and behavior
  • (4) produce enzymes different from the parent
Answer: (2) contain identical genes

2. Which statement best describes the term theory as used in the gene-chromosome theory?

  • (1) A theory is never revised as new scientific evidence is presented.
  • (2) A theory is an assumption made by scientists and implies a lack of certainty.
  • (3) A theory refers to a scientific explanation that is strongly supported by a variety of experimental data.
  • (4) A theory is a hypothesis that has been supported by one experiment performed by two or more scientists.
Answer: (3) A theory refers to a scientific explanation that is strongly supported by a variety of experimental data.

3. Which two systems are most directly involved in providing molecules needed for the synthesis of fats in human cells?

  • (1) digestive and circulatory
  • (2) excretory and digestive
  • (3) immune and muscular
  • (4) reproductive and circulatory
Answer: (1) digestive and circulatory

4. Which statements best describe the relationship between the terms chromosomes, genes, and nuclei?

  • (1) Chromosomes are found on genes. Genes are found in nuclei.
  • (2) Chromosomes are found in nuclei. Nuclei are found in genes.
  • (3) Genes are found on chromosomes. Chromosomes are found in nuclei.
  • (4) Genes are found in nuclei. Nuclei are found in chromosomes.
Answer: (3) Genes are found on chromosomes. Chromosomes are found in nuclei.

5. Organisms from a particular ecosystem are shown below.

Living Environment June 2004

Which statement concerning an organism in this ecosystem is correct?

  • (1) Organism 2 is heterotrophic.
  • (2) Organism 3 helps recycle materials.
  • (3) Organism 4 obtains all of its nutrients from an abiotic source.
  • (4) Organism 5 must obtain its energy from organism 1.
Answer: (2) Organism 3 helps recycle materials.

6. In a cell, information that controls the production of proteins must pass from the nucleus to the

  • (1) cell membrane
  • (2) chloroplasts
  • (3) mitochondria
  • (4) ribosomes
Answer: (4) ribosomes

7. The arrows in the diagram below indicate the movement of materials into and out of a singlecelled organism.

Living Environment June 2004

The movements indicated by all the arrows are directly involved in

  • (1) the maintenance of homeostasis
  • (2) photosynthesis, only
  • (3) excretion, only
  • (4) the digestion of minerals
Answer: (1) the maintenance of homeostasis

8. The chart below shows relationships between genes, the environment, and coloration of tomato plants.

Living Environment June 2004

Which statement best explains the final appearance of these tomato plants?

  • (1) The expression of gene A is not affected by light.
  • (2) The expression of gene B varies with the presence of light.
  • (3) The expression of gene A varies with the environment.
  • (4) Gene B is expressed only in darkness
Answer: (3) The expression of gene A varies with the environment. 

9. The diagram below represents a section of a molecule that carries genetic information.

The pattern of numbers represents

  • (1) a sequence of paired bases
  • (2) the order of proteins in a gene
  • (3) folds of an amino acid
  • (4) positions of gene mutations
Answer: (1) a sequence of paired bases

10. In the human pancreas, acinar cells produce digestive enzymes and beta cells produce insulin. The best explanation for this is that

  • (1) a mutation occurs in the beta cells to produce insulin when the sugar level increases in the blood
  • (2) different parts of an individual’s DNA are used to direct the synthesis of different proteins in different types of cells
  • (3) lowered sugar levels cause the production of insulin in acinar cells to help maintain homeostasis
  • (4) the genes in acinar cells came from one parent while the genes in
Answer: (2) different parts of an individual’s DNA are used to direct the synthesis of different proteins in different types of cells

11. If mitotic cell division is the only way a particular species of single-celled organism can reproduce, it is most likely that

  • (1) mutations can not occur in this species
  • (2) the rate of evolution in this species is slower than in one that reproduces sexually
  • (3) the number of organisms of this species in an area will remain constant
  • (4) this species belongs to the animal kingdom
Answer: (2) the rate of evolution in this species is slower than in one that reproduces sexually 

12. In order for new species to develop, there must be a change in the

  • (1) temperature of the environment
  • (2) migration patterns within a population
  • (3) genetic makeup of a population
  • (4) rate of succession in the environment
Answer: (3) genetic makeup of a population

13. Which statement is not part of the concept of natural selection?

  • (1) Individuals that possess the most favorable variations will have the best chance of reproducing.
  • (2) Variation occurs among individuals in a population.
  • (3) More individuals are produced than will survive.
  • (4) Genes of an individual adapt to a changing environment.
Answer: (4) Genes of an individual adapt to a changing environment.

14. The diagram below shows the evolution of some different species of flowers.

Living Environment June 2004

Which statement about the species is correct?

  • (1) Species A, B, C, and D came from different ancestors.
  • (2) Species C evolved from species B.
  • (3) Species A, B, and C can interbreed successfully.
  • (4) Species A became extinct.
Answer: (4) Species A became extinct.

15. In sexually reproducing species, the number of chromosomes in each body cell remains the same from one generation to the next as a direct result of

  • (1) meiosis and fertilization
  • (2) mitosis and mutation
  • (3) differentiation and aging
  • (4) homeostasis and dynamic equilibrium
Answer: (1) meiosis and fertilization

16. One function of the placenta in a human is to

  • (1) surround the embryo and protect it from shock
  • (2) allow for mixing of maternal blood with fetal blood
  • (3) act as the heart of the fetus, pumping blood until the fetus is born
  • (4) permit passage of nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the fetus
Answer: (4) permit passage of nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the fetus

17. Some body structures of a human male are represented in the diagram below.

Living Environment June 2004

An obstruction in the structures labeled X would directly interfere with the

  • (1) transfer of sperm to a female
  • (2) production of sperm
  • (3) production of urine
  • (4) transfer of urine to the external environment
Answer: (1) transfer of sperm to a female

18. The diagram below represents a beaker containing a solution of various molecules involved in digestion.

Living Environment June 2004

Which structures represent products of digestion?

  • (1) A and D
  • (2) B and C
  • (3) B and E
  • (4) D and E
Answer: (4) D and E

Base your answer to question 19 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology

Living Environment June 2004

19. According to most scientists, which sequence best represents the order of biological evolution on Earth?

Living Environment June 2004
Answer: (2) B → C → A 

20. The diagram below represents what can happen when homeostasis in an organism is threatened.

Living Environment June 2004

Which statement provides a possible explanation for these events?

  • (1) Antibiotics break down harmful substances by the process of digestion.
  • (2) Some specialized cells mark and other cells engulf microbes during immune reactions.
  • (3) Embryonic development of essential organs occurs during pregnancy.
  • (4) Cloning removes abnormal cells produced during differentiation.
Answer: (2) Some specialized cells mark and other cells engulf microbes during immune reactions.

21. Arrows A, B, and C in the diagram below represent the processes necessary to make the energy stored in food available for muscle activity

Living Environment June 2004

The correct sequence of processes represented by A, B, and C is

  • (1) diffusion → synthesis → active transport
  • (2) digestion → diffusion → cellular respiration
  • (3) digestion → excretion → cellular respiration
  • (4) synthesis → active transport → excretion
Answer: (2) digestion → diffusion → cellular respiration

22. Which statement best describes what will most likely happen when an individual receives a vaccination containing a weakened pathogen?

  • (1) The ability to fight disease will increase due to antibodies received from the pathogen.
  • (2) The ability to fight disease caused by the pathogen will increase due to antibody production.
  • (3) The ability to produce antibodies will decrease after the vaccination.
  • (4) The ability to resist most types of diseases will increase.
Answer: (2) The ability to fight disease caused by the pathogen will increase due to antibody production.

23. When a certain plant is without water for an extended period of time, guard cells close openings in the leaves of the plant. This activity conserves water and illustrates

  • (1) cellular communication involving the action of nerve cells and receptor sites
  • (2) an increase in rate of growth due to a low concentration of water
  • (3) maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium through detection and response to stimuli
  • (4) a response to one biotic factor in the environment
Answer: (3) maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium through detection and response to stimuli

24. Which process usually uses carbon dioxide molecules?

  • (1) cellular respiration
  • (2) asexual reproduction
  • (3) active transport
  • (4) autotrophic nutrition
Answer: (4) autotrophic nutrition 

25. A particular species of unicellular organism inhabits the intestines of termites, where the unicellular organisms are protected from predators. Wood that is ingested by the termites is digested by the unicellular organisms, forming food for the termites. The relationship between these two species can be described as

  • (1) harmful to both species
  • (2) parasite/host
  • (3) beneficial to both species
  • (4) predator/prey
Answer: (3) beneficial to both species

26. A population of chipmunks migrated to an environment where they had little competition. Their population quickly increased but eventually stabilized as shown in the graph.

Living Environment June 2004

Which statement best explains why the population stabilized?

  • (1) Interbreeding between members of the population increased the mutation rate.
  • (2) The population size became limited due to factors such as availability of food.
  • (3) An increase in the chipmunk population caused an increase in the producer population.
  • (4) A predator species came to the area and occupied the same niche as the chipmunks.
Answer: (2) The population size became limited due to factors such as availability of food.

27. Which factor is a major cause of global warming?

  • (1) increased burning of fuels
  • (2) increased number of green plants
  • (3) decreased mineral availability
  • (4) decreased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Answer: (1) increased burning of fuels 

28. If humans remove carnivorous predators such as wolves and coyotes from an ecosystem, what will probably be the first observable result?

  • (1) The natural prey will die off.
  • (2) Certain plant populations will increase.
  • (3) Certain herbivores will exceed carrying capacity.
  • (4) The decomposers will fill the predator niche.
Answer: (3) Certain herbivores will exceed carrying capacity.

29. Which situation has had the most negative effect on the ecosystems of Earth?

  • (1) use of air pollution controls
  • (2) use of natural predators to control insect pests
  • (3) recycling glass, plastic, and metals
  • (4) increasing human population
Answer: (4) increasing human population

30. Stage D in the diagram below is located on land that was once a bare field.

Living Environment June 2004

The sequence of stages leading from bare field to stage D best illustrates the process known as

  • (1) replication
  • (2) recycling
  • (3) feedback
  • (4) succession
Answer: (4) succession

 

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