Living Environment June 2002

Living Environment June 2002 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Wednesday, June 19, 2002 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The current knowledge concerning cells is the result of the investigations and observations of many scientists. The work of these scientists forms a well-accepted body of knowledge about cells. This body of knowledge is an example of a

  • (1) hypothesis
  • (2) controlled experiment
  • (3) theory
  • (4) research plan
Answer: (3) theory

2. An experimental design included references from prior experiments, materials and equipment, and step-by-step procedures. What else should be included before the experiment can be started?

  • (1) a set of data
  • (2) a conclusion based on data
  • (3) safety precautions to be used
  • (4) an inference based on results
Answer: (3) safety precautions to be used 

3. In his theory, Lamarck suggested that organisms will develop and pass on to offspring variations that they need in order to survive in a particular environment. In a later theory, Darwin proposed that changing environmental conditions favor certain variations that promote the survival of organisms. Which statement is best illustrated by this information?

  • (1) Scientific theories that have been changed are the only ones supported by scientists.
  • (2) All scientific theories are subject to change and improvement.
  • (3) Most scientific theories are the outcome of a single hypothesis.
  • (4) Scientific theories are not subject to change.
Answer: (2) All scientific theories are subject to change and improvement.

4. The dense needles of Douglas fir trees can prevent most light from reaching the forest floor. This situation would have the most immediate effect on

  • (1) producers
  • (2) carnivores
  • (3) herbivores
  • (4) decomposers
Answer: (1) producers 

5. Which statement best describes a characteristic of an ecosystem?

  • (1) It must have producers and consumers but not decomposers.
  • (2) It is stable because it has consumers to recycle energy.
  • (3) It always has two or more different autotrophs filling the same niche.
  • (4) It must have organisms that carry out autotrophic nutrition.
Answer: (4) It must have organisms that carry out autotrophic nutrition.

6. In a cell, all organelles work together to carry out

  • (1) diffusion
  • (2) active transport
  • (3) information storage
  • (4) metabolic processes
Answer: (4) metabolic processes 

7. The ability of certain hormones to attach to a cell is primarily determined by the

  • (1) receptor molecules in the cell membrane
  • (2) proteins in the cytoplasm of the cell
  • (3) amount of DNA in the cell
  • (4) concentration of salts outside the cell
Answer: (1) receptor molecules in the cell membrane 

8. The diagram below represents the organization of genetic information within a cell nucleus.

Living Environment June 2002

The circle labeled Z most likely represents

  • (1) amino acids
  • (2) chromosomes
  • (3) vacuoles
  • (4) molecular bases
Answer: (2) chromosomes

9. The diagram below represents the change in a sprouting onion bulb when sunlight is present and when sunlight is no longer available.

Living Environment June 2002

Which statement best explains this change?

  • (1) Plants need oxygen to survive.
  • (2) Environmental conditions do not alter characteristics.
  • (3) Plants produce hormones.
  • (4) The environment can influence the expression of certain genetic traits.
Answer: (4) The environment can influence the expression of certain genetic traits.

10. A human zygote is produced from gametes that are usually identical in

  • (1) the expression of encoded information
  • (2) the number of altered genes present
  • (3) chromosome number
  • (4) cell size
Answer: (3) chromosome number

11. Molecule 1 represents a segment of hereditary information, and molecule 2 represents the portion of a molecule that is determined by information from molecule 1.

Living Environment June 2002

What will most likely happen if there is a change in the first three subunits on the upper strand of molecule 1?

  • (1) The remaining subunits in molecule 1 will also change.
  • (2) A portion of molecule 2 may be different.
  • (3) Molecule 1 will split apart, triggering an immune response.
  • (4) Molecule 2 may form two strands rather than one.
Answer: (2) A portion of molecule 2 may be different.

12. The diagram below shows two different structures, 1 and 2, that are present in many singlecelled organisms. Structure 1 contains protein A, but not protein B, and structure 2 contains protein B, but not protein A.

Living Environment June 2002

Which statement is correct concerning protein A and protein B?

  • (1) Proteins A and B have different functions and different amino acid chains.
  • (2) Proteins A and B have different functions but the same amino acid chains.
  • (3) Proteins A and B have the same function but a different sequence of bases (A, C, T, and G).
  • (4) Proteins A and B have the same function and the same sequence of bases (A, C, T, and G)
Answer: (1) Proteins A and B have different functions and different amino acid chains.

13. Which process is a common practice that has been used by farmers for hundreds of years to develop new plant and animal varieties?

  • (1) cloning
  • (2) genetic engineering
  • (3) cutting DNA and removing segments
  • (4) selective breeding for desirable traits
Answer: (4) selective breeding for desirable traits 

14. Which statement represents the major concept of the biological theory of evolution?

  • (1) A new species moves into a habitat when another species becomes extinct.
  • (2) Every period of time in Earth’s history has its own group of organisms.
  • (3) Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms.
  • (4) Every location on Earth’s surface has its own unique group of organisms.
Answer: (3) Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms.

15. The diagrams below show the bones in the forelimbs of three different organisms.

Living Environment June 2002

Differences in the bone arrangements support the hypothesis that these organisms

  • (1) are members of the same species
  • (2) may have descended from the same ancestor
  • (3) have adaptations to survive in different environments
  • (4) all contain the same genetic information
Answer: (3) have adaptations to survive in different environments

16. Which situation would most likely result in the highest rate of natural selection?

  • (1) reproduction of organisms by an asexual method in an unchanging environment
  • (2) reproduction of a species having a very low mutation rate in a changing environment
  • (3) reproduction of organisms in an unchanging environment with little competition and few predators
  • (4) reproduction of organisms exhibiting genetic differences due to mutations and genetic recombinations in a changing environment
Answer: (4) reproduction of organisms exhibiting genetic differences due to mutations and genetic recombinations in a changing environment

17. Some behaviors such as mating and caring for young are genetically determined in certain species of birds. The presence of these behaviors is most likely due to the fact that

  • (1) birds do not have the ability to learn
  • (2) individual birds need to learn to survive and reproduce
  • (3) these behaviors helped birds to survive in the past
  • (4) within their lifetimes, birds developed these behaviors
Answer: (3) these behaviors helped birds to survive in the past

18. “Dolly” is a sheep developed from an egg cell of her mother that had its nucleus replaced by a nucleus from a body cell of her mother. As a result of this technique, Dolly is

  • (1) no longer able to reproduce
  • (2) genetically identical to her mother
  • (3) able to have a longer lifespan
  • (4) unable to mate
Answer: (2) genetically identical to her mother

19. Which diagram best represents part of the process of sperm formation in an organism that has a normal chromosome number of eight?

Living Environment June 2002

20. ATP is a compound that is synthesized when

  • (1) chemical bonds between carbon atoms are formed during photosynthesis
  • (2) energy stored in chemical bonds is released during cellular respiration
  • (3) energy stored in nitrogen is released, forming amino acids
  • (4) digestive enzymes break amino acids into smaller parts
Answer: (2) energy stored in chemical bonds is released during cellular respiration

21. Allergic reactions are most closely associated with

  • (1) the action of circulating hormones
  • (2) a low blood sugar level
  • (3) immune responses to usually harmless substances
  • (4) the shape of red blood cells
Answer: (3) immune responses to usually harmless substances

22. The diagram below represents the human male reproductive system.

Living Environment June 2002

Which pair of letters indicates a structure that produces gametes and a structure that makes possible the delivery of gametes for internal fertilization, respectively?

  • (1) A and D
  • (2) B and D
  • (3) C and A
  • (4) D and C
Answer: (1) A and D 

23. Microbes that enter the body, causing disease, are known as

  • (1) pathogens
  • (2) antibodies
  • (3) enzymes
  • (4) hosts
Answer: (1) pathogens  

24. The blood of newborn babies is tested to determine the presence of a certain substance. This substance indicates the genetic disorder PKU, which may result in mental retardation. Babies born with this disorder are put on a special diet so that mental retardation will not develop. In this situation, modification of the baby’s diet is an example of how biological research can be used to

  • (1) change faulty genes
  • (2) cure a disorder
  • (3) stimulate immunity
  • (4) control a disorder
Answer: (4) control a disorder  

25. Which statement illustrates a biotic resource interacting with an abiotic resource?

  • (1) A rock moves during an earthquake.
  • (2) A sea turtle transports a pilot fish to food.
  • (3) A plant absorbs sunlight, which is used for photosynthesis.
  • (4) A wind causes waves to form on a lake.
Answer: (3) A plant absorbs sunlight, which is used for photosynthesis.  

26. Which relationship best describes the interactions between lettuce and a rabbit?

  • (1) predator — prey
  • (2) producer — consumer
  • (3) parasite — host
  • (4) decomposer — scavenger
Answer: (2) producer — consumer  

27. The diagram below represents part of a life process in a leaf chloroplast.

Living Environment June 2002

If the process illustrated in the diagram is interrupted by a chemical at point X, there would be an immediate effect on the release of

  • (1) chlorophyll
  • (2) nitrogen
  • (3) carbon dioxide
  • (4) oxygen
Answer: (4) oxygen  

28. The widest variety of genetic material that can be used by humans for future agricultural or medical research would most likely be found in

  • (1) a large field of a genetically engineered crop
  • (2) an ecosystem having significant biodiversity
  • (3) a forest that is planted and maintained by a forest service
  • (4) areas that contain only one or two species
Answer: (2) an ecosystem having significant biodiversity  

29. The diagram below shows the interaction between blood sugar levels and pancreatic activity.

Living Environment June 2002

This process is an example of

  • (1) a feedback mechanism maintaining homeostasis
  • (2) an immune system responding to prevent disease
  • (3) the digestion of sugar by insulin
  • (4) the hormonal regulation of gamete production
Answer: (1) a feedback mechanism maintaining homeostasis  

30. The diagram below represents an energy pyramid.

Living Environment June 2002

Which organisms would most likely be found at level A?

  • (1) birds
  • (2) worms
  • (3) mammals
  • (4) algae
Answer: (4) algae  

Living Environment June 2002 Questions Answers Keys

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