Living Environment June 2001

Living Environment June 2001 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Friday, June 15, 2001 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Diagrams, tables, and graphs are used by scientists mainly to

  • (1) design a research plan for an experiment
  • (2) test a hypothesis
  • (3) organize data
  • (4) predict the independent variable
Answer: (3) organize data 

2. A scientist tested a hypothesis that white-tailed deer would prefer apples over corn as a primary food source. The findings of the test, in which the scientist claimed that the deer preferred apples, were published. Which research technique, if used by the scientist, might result in this claim being questioned?

  • (1) The scientist observed four deer in different locations at various times of the day.
  • (2) The scientist observed a total of 500 deer in 20 different locations at various times of the day.
  • (3) The scientist observed 200 deer in various natural settings, but none in captivity.
  • (4) The scientist observed 300 deer in various locations in captivity, but none in natural settings.
Answer: (1) The scientist observed four deer in different locations at various times of the day.

3. What happens to certain nutrient molecules after they pass into muscle cells?

  • (1) They are replicated in the nucleus.
  • (2) They are acted on by enzymes and release the energy they contain.
  • (3) They are changed into tissues and organs in the cytoplasm.
  • (4) They enter chloroplasts, where they can absorb light energy
Answer: (2) They are acted on by enzymes and release the energy they contain.

4. A medical test indicates that a patient has a defective protein. This condition is most likely due to a change in the directions coded in the

  • (1) number of hydrogen atoms in starch molecules
  • (2) sequence of inorganic molecules
  • (3) number of carbon atoms in sugar molecules
  • (4) sequence of subunits in DNA
Answer: (4) sequence of subunits in DNA

5. If a human system fails to function properly, what is the most likely result?

  • (1) a stable rate of metabolism
  • (2) a disturbance in homeostasis
  • (3) a change in the method of cellular respiration
  • (4) a change in the function of DNA
Answer: (2) a disturbance in homeostasis

6. Which statement regarding the functioning of the cell membrane of all organisms is not correct?

  • (1) The cell membrane forms a boundary that separates the cellular contents from the outside environment.
  • (2) The cell membrane is capable of receiving and recognizing chemical signals.
  • (3) The cell membrane forms a barrier that keeps all substances that might harm the cell from entering the cell.
  • (4) The cell membrane controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.
Answer: (3) The cell membrane forms a barrier that keeps all substances that might harm the cell from entering the cell.

7. In multicellular organisms, cells must be able to communicate with each other. Structures that enable most cells to communicate with each other are known as

  • (1) pathogenic agent
  • (2) chloroplasts
  • (3) antibiotics
  • (4) receptor molecules
Answer: (4) receptor molecules

8. Every single-celled organism is able to survive because it carries out

  • (1) metabolic activities
  • (2) autotrophic nutrition
  • (3) heterotrophic nutrition
  • (4) sexual reproduction
Answer: (1) metabolic activities

9. The shape of a protein molecule is influenced by

  • (1) whether it is organic or inorganic
  • (2) the sequence of amino acids in it
  • (3) the number of genes found in the nucleus
  • (4) the number of chromosomes in the cell
Answer: (2) the sequence of amino acids in it

10. The data table below summarizes the results of an investigation in which seeds from the same plant were grown under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity

Living Environment June 2001

Which conclusion can be drawn from the information in the data table?

  • (1) Color in this species is determined by genes, only.
  • (2) Many characteristics are not inherited.
  • (3) Mutations occur only when plants are grown at low temperatures.
  • (4) There is an interaction between environment and heredity
Answer: (4) There is an interaction between environment and heredity

11. The diagram below represents a change that occurred in a pair of chromosomes during the formation of an egg cell. The letters represent genes on the pair of chromosomes.

Living Environment June 2001

The alteration that occurred will most likely

  • (1) be passed on to every cell that develops from the egg cell
  • (2) change the chromosome number of the body cells that develop from the egg cell
  • (3) convert sex cells into body cells
  • (4) trigger the production of pathogens
Answer: (1) be passed on to every cell that develops from the egg cell

12. A small amount of DNA was taken from a fossil of a mammoth found frozen in glacial ice. Genetic technology can be used to produce a large quantity of identical DNA from this mammoth’s DNA. In this technology, the original DNA sample is used to

  • (1) stimulate differentiation in other mammoth cells
  • (2) provide fragments to replace certain human body chemicals
  • (3) act as a template for repeated replication
  • (4) trigger mitosis to obtain new base sequences
Answer: (3) act as a template for repeated replication

13. Many diabetics are now using insulin that was made by certain bacteria. The ability of these bacteria to produce insulin was most likely the result of

  • (1) deleting many DNA segments from bacterial DNA
  • (2) genetic mapping of bacterial DNA to activate the gene for insulin production
  • (3) inserting a portion of human DNA into the ring-shaped DNA of bacteria
  • (4) using radiation to trigger mutations
Answer: (3) inserting a portion of human DNA into the ring-shaped DNA of bacteria

14. Which situation would most directly affect future generations naturally produced by a maple tree?

  • (1) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within some leaves of the tree.
  • (2) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within the gametes of some flowers of the tree.
  • (3) An increase in temperature reduces the number of cell divisions in the roots.
  • (4) Rapidly growing cells just under the bark are exposed to radiation, causing changes in genetic material.
Answer: (2) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within the gametes of some flowers of the tree.

15. Which statement is best supported by fossil records?

  • (1) Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.
  • (2) Species occupying the same habitat have identical environmental needs.
  • (3) The struggle for existence between organisms results in changes in populations.
  • (4) Structures such as leg bones and wing bones can originate from the same type of tissue found in embryos.
Answer: (1) Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.

16. The first life-forms to appear on Earth were most likely

  • (1) complex single-celled organisms
  • (2) complex multicellular organisms
  • (3) simple single-celled organisms
  • (4) simple multicellular organisms
Answer: (3) simple single-celled organisms

17. One explanation for the variety of organisms present on Earth today is that over time

  • (1) new species have adapted to fill available niches in the environment
  • (2) evolution has caused the appearance of organisms that are similar to each other
  • (3) each niche has changed to support a certain variety of organism
  • (4) the environment has remained unchanged, causing rapid evolution
Answer: (1) new species have adapted to fill available niches in the environment

18. Within which structure in the human body does specialization of parts of the developing baby take place?

  • (1) ovary
  • (2) uterus
  • (3) testis
  • (4) pancrea
Answer: (2) uterus

19. Which statement best explains the significance of meiosis in the process of evolution within a species?

  • (1) The gametes produced by meiosis ensure the continuation of any particular species by asexual reproduction.
  • (2) Equal numbers of eggs and sperm are produced by meiosis.
  • (3) Meiosis produces eggs and sperm that are alike.
  • (4) Meiosis provides for variation in the gametes produced by an organism.
Answer: (4) Meiosis provides for variation in the gametes produced by an organism.

20. The diagram below represents chromosomes in a zygote.

Living Environment June 2001

Which diagrams best illustrate the daughter cells that result from normal mitotic cell division of this zygote?

Living Environment June 2001

Answer: (2) 

21. During the last months of pregnancy, the brain of a human embryo undergoes an essential “growth spurt.” Which action by the mother would most likely pose the greatest threat to the normal development of the nervous system of the embryo at this time?

  • (1) spraying pesticides in the garden
  • (2) taking prescribed vitamins on a daily basis
  • (3) maintaining a diet high in fiber and low in fat
  • (4) not exercising
Answer: (1) spraying pesticides in the garden

22. The diagram below illustrates a biochemical process that occurs in organisms.

Living Environment June 2001

The substance labeled “catalyst” is also known as

  • (1) a hormone
  • (2) an enzyme
  • (3) an antibody
  • (4) an inorganic compound
Answer: (2) an enzyme 

23. Which phrase best describes cellular respiration, a process that occurs continuously in the cells of organisms?

  • (1) removal of oxygen from the cells of an organism
  • (2) conversion of light energy into the chemical bond energy of organic molecules
  • (3) transport of materials within cells and throughout the bodies of multicellular organisms
  • (4) changing of stored chemical energy in food molecules to a form usable by organisms
Answer: (4) changing of stored chemical energy in food molecules to a form usable by organisms

24. A food pyramid representing relationships in a pond community is shown below

Living Environment June 2001

The energy of the Sun is made available to the pond community through the activities of the organisms at level

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (1) A 

25. Eating a sweet potato provides energy for human metabolic processes. The original source of this energy is the energy

  • (1) in protein molecules stored within the potato
  • (2) from starch molecules absorbed by the potato plant
  • (3) made available by photosynthesis
  • (4) in vitamins and minerals found in the soil
Answer: (3) made available by photosynthesis

26. Which statement does not identify a characteristic of antibodies?

  • (1) They are produced by the body in response to the presence of foreign substances.
  • (2) They may be produced in response to an antigen.
  • (3) They are nonspecific, acting against any foreign substance in the body.
  • (4) They may be produced by white blood cells.
Answer: (3) They are nonspecific, acting against any foreign substance in the body.

27. The blood of newborn babies is tested to determine whether a certain substance is present. This substance indicates the presence of the disorder known as PKU, which may result in mental retardation. Babies with this disorder are put on a special diet to prevent mental retardation. In this situation, which action is usually taken first?

  • (1) treating the expression of the disorder
  • (2) preventing the expression of the disorder
  • (3) controlling the disorder
  • (4) diagnosing the disorder
Answer: (4) diagnosing the disorder 

28. The graph below provides information about the population of deer in a given area between 1900 and 1945.

Living Environment June 2001

Which statement identifies the most likely reason that the carrying capacity of the area to support deer decreased between 1925 and 1930?

  • (1) The deer population decreased in 1926.
  • (2) The number of predators increased between 1915 and 1925.
  • (3) The deer population became too large.
  • (4) An unusually cold winter occurred in 1918
Answer: (3) The deer population became too large.

29. An increase in the level of insulin in the blood would most directly result in

  • (1) a decrease in the amount of glucose in the blood
  • (2) a decrease in the amount of protein in the blood
  • (3) an increase in the amount of fat in cells
  • (4) an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in cells
Answer: (1) a decrease in the amount of glucose in the blood

30. Compared to a natural forest, the wheat field of a farmer lacks

  • (1) heterotrophs
  • (2) significant biodiversity
  • (3) autotrophs
  • (4) stored energy
Answer: (2) significant biodiversity

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