Living Environment January 2018 Questions Answers Keys.
The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
Monday, January 22, 2018 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which organisms and set of characteristics are correctly paired?
- (1) fungi—carry out photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition
- (2) plants—carry out respiration and autotrophic nutrition
- (3) decomposers—carry out photosynthesis and autotrophic nutrition
- (4) animals—carry out autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition
2.) Humans have an effect on ecosystems when they use native grasslands or forested areas for farming or urban use. One negative effect of these changes on the ecosystem is that there will be
- (1) less biodiversity
- (2) more homes
- (3) successful economic growth
- (4) increased food production
3.) The diagram below represents structures found in the female reproductive system.
If the areas labeled A were completely blocked on both sides, the most likely result would be that
- (1) egg and estrogen production would stop
- (2) sperm and insulin production would stop
- (3) fertilization would not occur
- (4) an embryo would develop
4.) Scientists have studied oceanic plastic garbage “patches” around the world. These are areas that accumulate plastic garbage from coastal regions. Their environmental effect ranges from killing sea life to blocking sunlight from reaching photosynthetic organisms. Without a change in human plastic usage, new garbage patches will continue to form. Which human activity would most directly reduce the amount of plastic garbage that enters the ocean?
- (1) Ban the production and usage of all bags made from recycled plastic.
- (2) Clean up plastic trash from shorelines, rivers, and other waterways that flow into the oceans.
- (3) Manufacture fewer reusable water bottles, so that people will be more likely to use disposable ones.
- (4) Implement a glass bottle deposit system to discourage people from recycling plastic bottles.
5.) Monarch butterflies migrate from the U.S. and Canada to Mexico every winter. Over the past 10 years, there has been a drastic decrease in the number of monarch butterflies. Scientists have estimated that the population may have decreased from about 1 billion to 35 million. Which action would not be considered a reason for the decline in monarch butterfly populations?
- (1) illegal deforestation
- (2) extreme temperature changes
- (3) decreasing food supplies
- (4) habitat preservation
6.) Finches on the Galapagos Islands express a variety of traits. Variability in the offspring of
these finches a result of
- (1) mutation and cloning
- (2) meiosis and mutation
- (3) mitosis and asexual reproduction
- (4) mitosis and genetic recombination
7.) Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides, may reduce fertility in males by interfering with their ability to produce gametes.These toxins are most likely having an effect on the
- (1) testes and progesterone
- (2) ovaries and testosterone
- (3) ovaries and estrogen
- (4) testes and testosterone
8.) Which statement best describes an important process carried out by structure X?
- (1) Milk passes from the mother to the fetus.
- (2) Materials are exchanged between fetal and maternal blood.
- (3) Maternal blood is converted into fetal blood.
- (4) Oxygen diffuses from fetal blood to maternal blood
9.) Traditional light bulbs are only 10% efficient. Ninety percent of the energy they use is converted to heat. Modern light bulbs are much more efficient, but may cost three times as much as traditional light bulbs. Consumers who switch to modern lightbulbs are most likely
- (1) spending more money for no good reason
- (2) trying to stop pollution of the oceans
- (3) trading a short-term cost for long-term savings
- (4) helping traditional lightbulb factories employ people
10.) Many oak trees are cut down and removed from an oak-hickory forest. A likely result of the direct harvesting of the oak species would be the
- (1) disruption of natural cycles
- (2) conservation of these natural forest resources
- (3) recycling of all the nutrients in the forest
- (4) prevention of the extinction of animals native to the area
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