Living Environment January 2017

Living Environment January 2017 Question Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Wednesday, January 25, 2017 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name ____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. For a human zygote to become an embryo, it must undergo

  • (1) fertilization
  • (2) recombination
  • (3) meiotic divisions
  • (4) mitotic divisions
Answer: (4) mitotic divisions

2. Many homeowners and businesses are installing solar electric systems. Greater use of solar electric systems benefi ts the environment because it

  • (1) depends on the greater use of fossil fuels
  • (2) conserves nonrenewable resources
  • (3) produces gases that cause global warming
  • (4) reduces the need for the ozone shield
Answer: (2) conserves nonrenewable resources 

3. A cell in the leaf of a corn plant contains more chloroplasts than a cell in the stem of a corn plant. Based on this observation, it can be inferred that, when compared to the cell in the stem, the cell in the leaf

  • (1) synthesizes more sugar
  • (2) has a higher chromosome count
  • (3) produces fewer proteins
  • (4) uses less carbon dioxide
Answer: (1) synthesizes more sugar 

4. When the human body is responding to stress, the hormone adrenaline is released. A short time later, the body returns to normal. This is an example of how a human

  • (1) reacts to an antibody
  • (2) develops genetic variation in body cells
  • (3) maintains cellular organization
  • (4) maintains dynamic equilibrium
Answer: (4) maintains dynamic equilibrium 

5. A direct indication that the white blood cells of the body are functioning would be

  • (1) an increase in the number of oxygen molecules in the lungs
  • (2) a decrease in the number of pathogens in the body
  • (3) a decreased secretion of hormones by certain glands
  • (4) an increase of carbon dioxide in the cells of the body
Answer: (2) a decrease in the number of pathogens in the body 

6. A fully functioning enzyme molecule is arranged in a complex three-dimensional shape. This shape determines the

  • (1) specifi c type of molecule it interacts with during a reaction
  • (2) rate at which the enzyme breaks down during a reaction it regulates
  • (3) pH of all body systems
  • (4) temperature of the products of the reaction it regulates
Answer: (1) specifi c type of molecule it interacts with during a reaction 

7. A student received a fl u shot in the fall. During the fl u season, the student caught a cold. The most likely reason the vaccine he received did not prevent the cold was that

  • (1) his illness was not caused by a pathogen
  • (2) he did not get the vaccine at the right time of year
  • (3) his body produced antibiotics in response to the vaccine
  • (4) the vaccine he received contained only fl u virus antigens
Answer: (4) the vaccine he received contained only fl u virus antigens 

8. In August 2010, the Asian clam was discovered in Lake George. It is not native to that area. A single clam can reproduce and release hundreds of offspring in a day. Fish and crayfi sh eat the clams but cannot keep pace with the rate at which the clams reproduce. The introduction of the Asian clam into Lake George is

  • (1) positive, because it adds to the stability of the ecosystem
  • (2) positive, because the fi sh and crayfi sh would otherwise not have food
  • (3) negative, because it decreases water pollution in the lake
  • (4) negative, because it competes with native clam species and reduces stability
Answer: (4) negative, because it competes with native clam species and reduces stability 

9. Like humans, animals including dogs and cats get goose bumps. On a cold day, these goose bumps cause their coats to expand creating a layer of insulation. If the animal is scared, the coat will also expand making the animal look larger to predators. These responses serve as examples of

  • (1) allergic reactions
  • (2) learned behaviors
  • (3) detection and response to stimuli
  • (4) reproductive and feeding success
Answer: (3) detection and response to stimuli 

10. Which factor is a major cause of the changes that occur during puberty, the years when the rate of human physical growth increases and reproductive maturity occurs?

  • (1) changes in some hormone levels
  • (2) an increase in meiosis in body cells
  • (3) a decrease in the rate of metabolism
  • (4) change in the gene sequences in reproductive cells
Answer: (1) changes in some hormone levels 

11. Which statement best describes how a new human trait develops and can be passed on to future generations?

  • (1) A mutation in a stomach cell results in the inability of a woman to produce a certain digestive enzyme.
  • (2) A mother consumes alcohol during pregnancy, causing the fetus to have a low birth weight.
  • (3) During meiosis, a new combination of DNA subunits is formed.
  • (4) During mitosis, DNA does not divide correctly and the cells die.
Answer: (3) During meiosis, a new combination of DNA subunits is formed. 

12. Survival of at least a few members of a population after a major environmental change is most dependent on

  • (1) the population having an individual that is adapted to the original environment
  • (2) the population having an individual that is adapted to great changes in the temperature in its environment
  • (3) variations in many different traits in many individuals in the population
  • (4) no variations in the color of the fur, skin, or feathers of the individuals in the population
Answer: (3) variations in many different traits in many individuals in the population 

13. A characteristic common to both diffusion and active transport is that

  • (1) enzymes are required
  • (2) oxygen is moved across a membrane
  • (3) ATP is needed
  • (4) the movement of molecules occurs
Answer: (4) the movement of molecules occurs 

14. The theory of evolution states that

  • (1) species that are extinct have no biological relationship to living species
  • (2) different animal species always interbreed to form new and different species
  • (3) species change over time, sometimes developing into new species
  • (4) the environment of Earth is constant over time
Answer: (3) species change over time, sometimes developing into new species 

15. Scientists in Brazil have developed specifi c fertilizers and special breeds of soybeans and corn so crops can grow on large areas of tropical lands. This is valuable because farmers can help to feed the growing human population and strengthen the economy. However, trade-offs must be considered because farming on tropical lands can also

  • (1) add helpful microorganisms to the soil
  • (2) remove oxygen from the atmosphere
  • (3) reduce populations of native species
  • (4) reduce mutations and disease in wildlife populations
Answer: (3) reduce populations of native species 

16. The photograph below shows two color variations of Himalayan rabbits. In the winter, the rabbits resemble the one on the left. In the summer, the rabbits resemble the one on the right.

Living Environment January 2017

The changes in fur color are most likely due to

  • (1) a virus that affected genes in specifi c areas of the body
  • (2) the sorting and recombination of genes
  • (3) gene expression due to the differences in abiotic conditions
  • (4) the molecular arrangement of sugars
Answer: (3) gene expression due to the differences in abiotic conditions 

17. The diagram represents a process used to modify bacterial cells.

Living Environment January 2017

In the diagram, arrows labeled X and Y represent the use of

  • (1) clones
  • (2) receptors
  • (3) genes
  • (4) enzymes
Answer: (4) enzymes 

18. The diagram below represents the changes over time in an area

Living Environment January 2017

Which example is not a natural process that could return a hardwood forest to the grass stage once again?

  • (1) a forest fi re caused by a lightning strike
  • (2) the aging and falling of trees
  • (3) clearing the land for agriculture
  • (4) a hurricane or tornado
Answer: (3) clearing the land for agriculture [/bg_collapse]

19. The Mississippi River Delta wetlands ecosystem is home to a large number of fi sh, birds, and other aquatic organisms. During the last century, this ecosystem has seen a decrease in wetland areas and species diversity due to land development, agriculture, and fl ooding. Conservation groups have been working to reconnect the Mississippi River with its fl ood plain and restore lost wetlands. One result of restoring wetland areas in this ecosystem would be

  • (1) an increase in abiotic factors that would cause organisms to develop new adaptations
  • (2) the development of an ecosystem that will prevent invasive species from settling there
  • (3) an increase in the carrying capacity of the ecosystem for wetland organisms
  • (4) to prevent the organisms that live in this ecosystem from competing for food and shelter

Answer: (3) an increase in the carrying capacity of the ecosystem for wetland organisms 

20. The diagram below represents a form of cellular reproduction.

Living Environment January 2017

As a result of this process, offspring 1 and offspring 2 will have

  • (1) the same number of genes but different traits
  • (2) a different number of genes but the same traits
  • (3) the same number of genes and the same traits
  • (4) a different number of genes and different traits
Answer: (2) a different number of genes but the same traits

21. The instructions for the genetic traits of an organism are directly determined by the

  • (1) numbers of A, T, C, and G units in a sugar molecule
  • (2) sequence of bases in DNA molecules
  • (3) length of a DNA molecule
  • (4) way the bases are paired in the two strands of a DNA molecule
Answer: (1) numbers of A, T, C, and G units in a sugar molecule 

22. Which statement best describes some protein molecules in a cell?

  • (1) Proteins are long, folded chains that can form various cell parts.
  • (2) Proteins are composed of four different starches that direct cell activity.
  • (3) Proteins are long, twisted strands of glucose that regulate cells.
  • (4) Proteins are genetically diverse substances that are synthesized in the nucleus.
Answer: (4) Proteins are genetically diverse substances that are synthesized in the nucleus. 

23. Raffl esia arnoldii is a bright red and yellow fl owering plant that has no leaves, roots, or stems. Raffl esia do not carry out photosynthesis. They take nutrients from the cells of grapevines. Raffl esia arnoldii is an example of a

  • (1) producer
  • (2) omnivore
  • (3) carnivore
  • (4) parasite
Answer: (2) omnivore 

24. Female hammerhead sharks sometimes produce offspring by a type of asexual reproduction. These offspring

  • (1) are a result of the uniting of a male and a female gamete
  • (2) have cells that contain DNA found only in the female shark
  • (3) are considered to be a different species from the male parent
  • (4) have cells that contain genetic information from both parents
Answer: (3) are considered to be a different species from the male parent 

25. A tomato gene, known as the SIKLUH gene, has recently been discovered. The gene leads to the production of larger tomatoes. The gene affects fruit size by increasing cell layers and promoting extra cell divisions. In order to produce large fruit in other commercial plant species, scientists might

  • (1) clone the genes of other types of plants until they develop larger fruits
  • (2) breed the tomatoes with other fruits such as apples
  • (3) insert the gene into other types of plants
  • (4) stimulate the process of meiosis in the other plants
Answer: (2) breed the tomatoes with other fruits such as apples 

26. During the last century, human impacts on our planet have led to an increasing and alarming loss of biodiversity in rainforest ecosystems. Scientists estimate that current extinction rates exceed those of some prehistoric mass extinctions. This loss of biodiversity also means loss of genetic diversity and loss of ecosystems. What could be done to minimize this loss of biodiversity?

  • (1) Introduce new species to rainforest ecosystems.
  • (2) Write and pass new environmental protection laws specifi c to rainforest ecosystems.
  • (3) Build barriers around rainforest ecosystems to keep animals and plants contained.
  • (4) Move all rainforest animals to new ecosystems where they will be safe.
Answer: (2) Write and pass new environmental protection laws specifi c to rainforest ecosystems. 

27. Molecules in a certain medication attach to receptors on nerve cells. This prevents the normal chemical signal from binding to the receptor. One immediate result of taking this medication might be a disruption in the ability of

  • (1) the body to produce reproductive cells
  • (2) cells to communicate with each other
  • (3) cells to synthesize proteins
  • (4) the body to convert inorganic material into organic nutrients
Answer: (2) cells to communicate with each other 

28. The chart below contains information about some structures found in single-celled organisms

Living Environment January 2017

The information in this chart best illustrates the biological concept that

  • (1) all single-celled organisms contain contractile vacuoles, a fl agellum, and chloroplasts
  • (2) single-celled organisms contain structures that function in maintaining homeostasis
  • (3) the organs found in complex organisms evolved from these three structures
  • (4) multicellular organisms do not contain any cell structures
Answer: (4) multicellular organisms do not contain any cell structures 

29. The diagram below represents a process that occurs in human systems.

Living Environment January 2017

This process is known as

  • (1) excretion
  • (2) respiration
  • (3) circulation
  • (4) digestion
Answer: (2) respiration 

30. The diagram below represents levels of glucose and insulin found within the bloodstream of a healthy person throughout the course of the day.

Living Environment January 2017

The increase in insulin levels following an increase in glucose levels in the blood can best be explained by

  • (1) insulin being released into the blood to digest glucose
  • (2) a feedback mechanism that regulates blood glucose levels
  • (3) an excess of glucose-stimulating guard cells
  • (4) a response of the immune system to lower excess blood glucose levels
Answer: (1) insulin being released into the blood to digest glucose 

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