Living Environment January 2015 Question Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Monday, January 26, 2015 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name _______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Which observation could lead to the conclusion that an object is nonliving?
- (1) It passes on hereditary information only through asexual reproduction.
- (2) It carries out synthesis.
- (3) It cannot perform metabolic processes.
- (4) It is composed of a cell, but does not have tissues.
2. Decomposers are necessary in a food chain because they
- (1) manufacture food by photosynthesis
- (2) return nutrients to the ecosystem
- (3) absorb energy from the Sun
- (4) produce organic nutrients
3. In early spring, many wildflowers begin to grow, produce flowers, and release seeds. The leaves of the wildflowers make food before the leaves of the trees in the area begin to develop. The early growth pattern of the wildflowers would likely result in
- (1) decreased competition for sunlight between the trees and the wildflowers
- (2) decreased competition for suitable temperature between the trees and the wildflowers
- (3) increased competition for space between the trees and the wildflowers
- (4) increased competition for oxygen between the trees and the wildflowers
4. Which sequence best represents increasing complexity?
- (1) tissues → cells → organelles → organs
- (2) cells → organelles → organs → organism
- (3) organelles → cells → tissues → organs
- (4) organism → cells → tissues → organelles
5. The diagram below represents two processes that occur in organisms. A characteristic represented by X is common to both of these processes.
A characteristic that the two processes have in common is that each process
- (1) uses ATP
- (3) uses oxygen
- (2) requires enzymes
- (4) moves molecules
6. The molecules represented in the diagram below can interact to cause a biochemical process to occur.
Molecule A and molecule B most likely represent
- (1) a nerve signal and a gene
- (2) a receptor and a hormone
- (3) a chromosome and an antigen
- (4) a starch and an amino acid
7. The cytoplasm in a single-celled organism and the circulatory system in a human both
- (1) break down molecules into smaller components
- (2) release energy to be used by the organism
- (3) transport substances throughout the organism
- (4) distribute blood to all of the parts of the organism
8. A hydrangea plant has blue flowers when grown in acidic soil, but has pink flowers when grown in basic soil. A clone of the pink-flowered plant is grown in acidic soil and produces blue flowers. This change in flower color is most likely due to
- (1) sexual reproduction in the plants, resulting in variation
- (2) asexual reproduction in the plants, resulting in variation
- (3) genes being expressed in different ways due to environmental conditions
- (4) a gene mutation that occurred after the clone was produced
9. The diagram below represents a microscopic structure observed during mitosis.
The region indicated by letter A is known as
- (1) an enzyme
- (2) a gamete
- (3) a gene
- (4) an amino acid
10. A significant difference between the effects of the genetic information passed on from asexually reproducing parents to their offspring and sexually reproducing parents to their offspring is the
- (1) degree of modification of the size of chromosomes
- (2) types of DNA subunits
- (3) number of chromosomes in the body cells of the offspring
- (4) amount of variation between the parents and the offspring
11. A normal sequence of DNA bases in a single human skin cell is CATGGC. If this sequence replicates in this cell and becomes GATGGC, this alteration will most likely be passed to
- (1) every cell that develops from it
- (2) all human body cells
- (3) offspring of the human
- (4) all skin cells of this person
12. Beta cells in the pancreas and human skin cells both contain the insulin gene. The beta cells can make insulin; however, skin cells cannot. Which process is responsible for this gene being expressed in one cell type and not in another cell type?
- (1) mitosis
- (2) replication
- (3) differentiation
- (4) meiosis
13. Information in segments of human DNA can be expressed by a bacterial cell as a result of
- (1) sexual reproduction
- (2) random mutation
- (3) genetic variability
- (4) genetic engineering
14. The photograph below shows a recently discovered all-black penguin chick and several typical black and-white chicks.
The appearance of this penguin chick with all black feathers might
- (1) increase the types of foods penguins can eat
- (2) decrease the diversity of the penguin population
- (3) decrease the number of variations present in the black penguin population
- (4) result in an increase in black penguins over time if the trait provides a reproductive advantage
15. Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for
- (1) the fossil record of ancient life-forms
- (2) predictions about the rate of global warming
- (3) the amount of precipitation in a rain forest
- (4) the amount of soil used to grow certain crops
16. Some organs in the human body are represented in the diagram below.
A sudden change in the DNA of cells developing in which organ could be passed to future generations?
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
17. Two cellular events that normally occur during two processes are represented below.
Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the processes in which these events occur?
18. Photosynthesis and respiration are alike in that they both
- (1) require the Sun as a direct source of energy
- (2) result in the production of glucose molecules
- (3) require specific catalysts
- (4) occur within mitochondria
19. The reproductive cycle in females is regulated primarily by
- (1) estrogen and testosterone
- (2) estrogen and progesterone
- (3) progesterone and insulin
- (4) progesterone and testosterone
20. One function of the male reproductive system in mammals is to
- (1) produce insulin necessary for sexual reproduction
- (2) transport eggs necessary for fertilization
- (3) allow for delivery of gametes needed for reproduction
- (4) provide protection for the developing zygote
21. A zygote develops into a multicellular organism through
- (1) mitosis and specialization
- (2) mitosis and meiosis
- (3) recombination and communication
- (4) genetic engineering and natural selection
22. Pneumocystis is an organism normally found in the human lungs that can cause pneumonia. It seldom causes problems in individuals with healthy immune systems. However, people with AIDS sometimes become seriously ill with pneumonia. This is most likely due to the fact that individuals with AIDS have
- (1) inherited a tendency to contract pneumonia
- (2) difficulty fighting off infections
- (3) an allergy to this organism
- (4) hormones that strengthen the infection
23. A technique used to alter cells is represented in the diagram below.
The genetic material contained in the nucleus of each of the new cells is most likely
- (1) identical to that in the original body cell
- (2) identical to that in the original egg cell
- (3) 50% the same as the original egg cell and 50% the same as the original body cell
- (4) 25% the same as the original egg cell and 75% the same as the original body cell
24. A graph is shown below.
The graph contains information about
- (1) finite resources
- (2) limiting factors
- (3) biotic factors
- (4) mineral availability
25. Nicotine is only one of the many toxic chemicals inhaled while smoking. What effect can such toxic chemicals have on the body?
- (1) They stimulate an increase in height.
- (2) They stimulate uncontrolled cell division.
- (3) They eliminate carbon dioxide from cells.
- (4) They eliminate chromosomes from many cells.
26. The diagram below represents different feeding levels in an energy pyramid.
The most likely explanation for showing fewer organisms at each feeding level going up the pyramid is that
- (1) some energy is lost to the environment as heat
- (2) the larger the organism, the less energy it requires
- (3) some energy is recycled within each level and remains there
- (4) decomposers convert most of the energy into inorganic compounds
27. Which process uses energy to combine inorganic molecules to synthesize organic molecules?
- (1) respiration
- (2) digestion
- (3) photosynthesis
- (4) decomposition
28. The Nature Conservancy is an organization that protects a variety of habitats around the world. A project this organization would probably support is one that
- (1) uses endangered animals for medical research
- (2) protects the biodiversity of areas for future generations
- (3) alters habitats for industry and housing
- (4) prevents animal species from migrating to other habitats
29. Certain animal species that are endangered or threatened have been cloned. Closely related species have been used to carry the embryos of the endangered species. This process of increasing the population size of a species in danger of becoming extinct is an example of a
- (1) natural method to decrease ecosystem stability
- (2) natural method of controlling the population of an endangered species
- (3) technological fix to increase habitat destruction
- (4) technological fix for the problem of endangered species
30. Car manufacturers have begun to explore the use of biofuels, such as biodiesel, ethanol, and cooking oils made from plant material. The desired outcome of using these biofuels would be
- (1) a decrease in the use of fossil fuels
- (2) a decrease in the release of oxygen gas
- (3) an increase in abiotic resources
- (4) an increase in global warming
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