Living Environment January 2014 Question Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Monday, January 27, 2014 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name ____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The concentration of potassium is higher in red blood cells than in the surrounding blood plasma. This higher concentration is maintained by the process of
- (1) circulation
- (2) diffusion
- (3) excretion
- (4) active transport
2 Human genetic material is represented in the diagram below
The region labeled A is made up of a section of
- (1) a protein that becomes an enzyme
- (2) DNA that may direct protein synthesis
- (3) a carbohydrate made from amino acids
- (4) glucose that may be copied to make DNA
3. Brothers and sisters often have similar facial characteristics, such as nose shape or eye color, because they
- (1) are raised in similar environments
- (2) eat similar types of foods
- (3) have similar types of proteins
- (4) use similar types of facial care products
4. Compared to a normal body cell, a normal egg cell contains
- (1) the same number of chromosomes
- (2) half the number of chromosomes
- (3) twice the number of chromosomes
- (4) four times the number of chromosomes
5. The variations that exist in a population of wild giraffes are usually a result of events that occur during
- (1) mitotic division
- (2) genetic engineering
- (3) asexual reproduction
- (4) sexual reproduction
6. Evidence that best supports the theory of biological evolution was obtained from the
- (1) investigation of environmental niches
- (2) study of fossil records
- (3) comparison of the number of cells in organisms
- (4) analysis of food chains and food webs
7. The human immune system fights infection by releasing
- (1) ATPs
- (3) antibodies
- (2) antibiotics
- (4) antigens
8. The function of a specific enzyme is most directly influenced by its
- (1) molecular size
- (2) physical shape
- (3) carrying capacity
- (4) stored energy
9. A vaccine for the viral disease known as chicken pox would contain
- (1) a large amount of live virus
- (2) a dead or weakened form of the pathogen
- (3) several different antibiotics
- (4) a small number of white blood cells
10. Which process will result in a gain of energy in an ecosystem?
- (1) photosynthesis in algae cells
- (2) digestion in hummingbirds
- (3) ATP synthesis in fungi
- (4) respiration in maple tree cells
11. A photograph of a polar bear in its environment is shown below.
One possible reason why polar bears might not be able to survive if the environment they live in changes is because
- (1) the species will experience decreased competition for mates
- (2) the new environment will cause greater variation in the species
- (3) there will be a larger variety of food sources available
- (4) they are adapted to the specific environment in which they now live
12. An ecological process is represented below.
Which statement describes an event in this process?
- (1) Community B modifies the environment, making it suitable for community C.
- (2) Community D modifies the environment, making it suitable for community C.
- (3) Community E will develop into community A, if the environment remains stable.
- (4) Community A organisms will develop directly into community D organisms.
13. An infection in the body might result in a sudden
- (1) decrease in the activity of antigens produced by the mitochondria
- (2) decrease in the amount of DNA present in the nuclei of cells
- (3) increase in the activity of white blood cells
- (4) increase in the number of red blood cells
14. Which disorder could develop in the human body when the immune system attacks a usually harmless environmental substance?
- (1) cancer
- (2) AIDS
- (3) an allergy
- (4) an infection
15. In the human body, carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen that can be transported to cells. Breathing in too much carbon monoxide will most likely result in the production of
- (1) less ATP
- (2) less glucose
- (3) more DNA
- (4) more protein
16. Which human activity would interfere most directly with the production of oxygen in the environment?
- (1) using fertilizer for agriculture
- (2) using nuclear fuels
- (3) accelerating deforestation
- (4) preserving wetlands
17 Tissues of oleander plants contain chemicals that are poisonous to many mammals. The production of these poisonous chemicals most likely benefits oleanders by preventing leaf loss caused by
- (1) lack of rain
- (2) scavengers
- (3) mineral absorption
- (4) herbivores
18. Sugar maples and white pines are two different tree species that often grow side by side in the Adirondack Mountains. Which statement concerning these trees is correct?
- (1) Since they are both trees, they can interbreed.
- (2) Since they are not closely related, they do not compete with one another.
- (3) Even though they are both trees, each plays a different role in the ecosystem.
- (4) They utilize totally different abiotic resources.
19. People living in and around the Amazon rain forest have used parts of the gaviola tree to prepare medicines. Research is being conducted to determine if this tree can provide cures for many types of cancer. Continued destruction of rain forests might
- (1) reduce biodiversity and remove organisms with the potential to help humans
- (2) increase biodiversity and remove damaged and diseased trees
- (3) reduce biodiversity and increase the reproductive rates of all organisms
- (4) increase biodiversity and ecosystem stability where humans plant crops
20. A fundamental concept of ecology is that living organisms
- (1) are independent and do not interact with each other or with the physical environment
- (2) do not interact with other living organisms, but do interact with the physical environment
- (3) interact with each other, but do not interact with the physical environment
- (4) interact with other living organisms and interact with the physical environment
21. Many families now use compost to make the soil in their gardens more fertile. They collect vegetable scraps and yard trimmings, place them in a compost pile or special container, and let them decompose. The organisms primarily responsible for decomposing the vegetable scraps and yard trimmings are
- (1) plant parasites
- (2) autotrophs
- (3) bacteria and fungi
- (4) scavengers and viruses
22. In 2003, the city of Rochester, New York, began killing weeds with steam. A machine heats water to 280°F then sprays it on the weeds with great pressure. The extreme heat destroys the cellular structure of the plants. What is a possible disadvantage of this method of weed control?
- (1) It can be used safely in areas where children play.
- (2) It reduces the number of mutations in the ecosystem.
- (3) It destroys weeds without chemicals.
- (4) It alters the habitats of some beneficial insects.
23. A food chain is represented below.
grass → rabbit → hawk
Structures within the rabbit are formed using
- (1) solar energy from the grass
- (2) heat energy lost to the environment
- (3) chemical energy from the hawk
- (4) chemical energy from the grass
24. The graduating class of a high school would like to give the school a gift that would have a positive impact on the environment. Which plan would be the best choice?
- (1) making wooden benches by harvesting trees from school property
- (2) planting native trees along the border of the school property
- (3) introducing a new population of foxes, the school mascot, to school grounds
- (4) clearing an area to make room for additional student parking
25. Which graph best illustrates the change in the human population over the past 2000 years?
26 Which processes lead to the greatest variety of genetic combinations?
- (1) asexual reproduction and cloning
- (2) meiosis and fertilization
- (3) meiosis and mitosis
- (4) cloning and mitosis
27. One possible explanation for the fact that some simple, one-celled organisms did not evolve into complex, multicellular organisms is that
- (1) energy flow in an ecosystem requires simple autotrophic organisms
- (2) the reproductive rate of single-celled organisms is too fast for change to occur
- (3) these organisms possessed traits that enabled them to survive in a changing environment
- (4) stability within an ecosystem requires the presence of a variety of different species
28. In New York State, cars are inspected to be sure they are not releasing excessive amounts of several gases into the atmosphere. This is done in an effort to
- (1) recycle more nutrients
- (2) reduce biodiversity
- (3) reduce global warming
- (4) increase the growth rates of forests
29. Damage to the ozone shield over the United States is likely to cause
- (1) increased warming of local ecosystems
- (2) increased exposure to ultraviolet light
- (3) reduction in the pH of acid precipitation
- (4) reduction in the frequency of floods and droughts
30. Researchers recently discovered that when hammerhead sharks were moved to shallower water, resulting in exposure to increased light intensity, their backs turned a deep brownish black. Which statement best supports this observation?
- (1) Genes are inherited, but their expression can be modified by interactions with the environment.
- (2) The cells of hammerhead sharks contain many thousands of different genes in their nuclei.
- (3) An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes.
- (4) Asexually produced offspring are
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