Living Environment January 2011 Questions Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Tuesday, January 25, 2011 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The greatest number of relationships between the organisms in an ecosystem is best shown in
- (1) a food chain
- (2) an energy pyramid
- (3) a food web
- (4) an ecological succession diagram
2. The diagram below shows stages of human reproduction
The direct result of fertilization is represented at
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
3. Certain organisms are able to store energy from the Sun in energy-rich compounds. Which event best illustrates this activity?
- (1) A fox captures and eats a young rabbit.
- (2) A caterpillar is eaten by a blackbird.
- (3) Lettuce produces organic substances.
- (4) Bacteria change organic material into simple nutrients.
4. The diagram below shows how a chemical message produced by one cell is received by other cells.
If these chemical messages are destroyed, the target cells will
- (1) produce their own chemical messages
- (2) not respond with appropriate actions
- (3) develop different receptors
- (4) no longer be produced in the organism
5. Coded instructions that are passed from one generation to the next can be most directly changed by the processes of
- (1) passive transport, natural selection, and synthesis
- (2) selective breeding, replication, and absorption
- (3) recombination, mutation, and genetic engineering
- (4) evolution, reproduction, and digestion
6. The diagram below represents a cross section of a leaf of a green plant, showing an opening (stomate) in the lower surface.
A stomate in the lower surface of the leaf has a function most similar to the function of which cell structure?
- (1) cell membrane
- (2) vacuole
- (3) ribosome
- (4) nucleus
7. When S. marcescens, a bacterium, is grown in a refrigerator, it produces red-colored colonies. However, if the bacterium is grown at room temperature, the colonies are white. The best explanation for this situation is that
- (1) refrigeration changes the structure of genes
- (2) room temperature stimulates the synthesis of a red pigment
- (3) temperature has an effect on the expression of genes
- (4) only temperature is responsible for the expression of a trait
8. In sexually reproducing organisms, mutations can be inherited if they occur in
- (1) the egg, only
- (2) the sperm, only
- (3) any body cell of either the mother or the father
- (4) either the egg or the sperm
9. The diagram below represents a structure found in most cells.
The section labeled A in the diagram is most likely a
- (1) protein composed of folded chains of base subunits
- (2) biological catalyst
- (3) part of a gene for a particular trait
- (4) chromosome undergoing a mutation
10. Researchers have reported that the number of different species of fish found in certain areas of the ocean has been greatly reduced over the past 50 years. This situation is an example of
- (1) a loss of biodiversity
- (2) an increase in ecological succession
- (3) a lack of differentiation
- (4) an increased carrying capacity
11. Large rebates and low-cost loans have been made available to homeowners to install solar panels to heat their homes. The use of these incentives benefits ecosystems because it
- (1) encourages conservation of resources
- (2) reduces the need for recycling
- (3) promotes the use of nonrenewable resources
- (4) discourages the use of alternative energy
12. Which sequence represents the correct order of events for the production of necessary complex molecules after food is taken in by a multicellular animal?
- (1) diffusion → synthesis → absorption → digestion → circulation
- (2) circulation → diffusion → synthesis → absorption → digestion
- (3) digestion → absorption → circulation → diffusion → synthesis
- (4) synthesis → digestion → absorption → diffusion → circulation
13. The number in each circle below represents the chromosome number of the cell. Which diagram represents the production of offspring by an asexually reproducing organism?
14. The arrows in the diagram below indicate the development of four different varieties of vegetable plants
from wild mustard.
Each of these varieties was most likely produced as a result of
- (1) asexual reproduction in the wild for many years
- (2) changes in light availability
- (3) competition between plants
- (4) selective breeding over many generations
15. The sorting and recombination of genes during reproduction is important to evolution because these processes
- (1) decrease variation and help maintain a stable population
- (2) increase variation that enables species to adapt to change
- (3) decrease the chances of producing offspring that are adapted to the environment
- (4) increase the ability of all the offspring to adapt to the environment
16. A diagram of evolutionary pathways of various animal species is shown below.
The pattern of these evolutionary pathways is most likely the result of alterations within which structure?
- (1) vacuole
- (2) cell membrane
- (3) nucleus
- (4) ribosome
17. Which situation is least likely to result in new inherited characteristics?
- (1) altering genetic information
- (2) changes in the structure of genes
- (3) producing new individuals by means of cloning
- (4) changes in the structure of individual chromosomes
18. In most mammals, the placenta is essential to the embryo for the processes of
- (1) meiosis and excretion
- (2) nutrition and excretion
- (3) milk production and digestion
- (4) blood exchange and digestion
19. Ancestors of the giant panda had rounded paws with five very short toes. Today, the giant panda has a sixth toe, often referred to as a thumb, even though it develops from a wrist bone. This unique thumb is an adaptation that allows the panda to easily hold and eat bamboo shoots. The presence of the giant panda’s thumb is most likely the result of
- (1) natural selection
- (2) selective breeding
- (3) asexual reproduction
- (4) ecological succession
20. The diagram below represents levels of organization within a cell of a multicellular organism.
Which statement is correct regarding the structure represented by X?
- (1) Structure X is composed of many different amino acids that determine the type of cell it will become in the organism.
- (2) Structure X has the same base sequence in all the body cells of the organism.
- (3) Structure X is a folded chain arrangement of carbohydrate found in all the body cells of the organism.
- (4) Structure X contains 20 different kinds of subunits that are present in all the cells of the organism.
21. A pathogen passing from a mother to her fetus could cause
- (1) a decrease in the chromosome number of the fetus
- (2) an increase in milk production in the mother
- (3) gamete production to increase
- (4) an infection in the
22. The diagram below represents the human male reproductive system.
Which activity would be prevented by blockages at X and Y?
- (1) transport of urine out of the body
- (2) passage of testosterone to the female to stimulate egg production
- (3) movement of sperm out of the body
- (4) movement of testosterone to the testes to stimulate sperm production
23. One environmental problem caused by the use of nuclear power as an energy source is the
- (1) destruction of the ozone shield
- (2) disposal of wastes
- (3) production of acid rain
- (4) accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere
24. Which method of protecting members of an endangered species is most ecologically sound?
- (1) protecting the habitats where these animals live from human development
- (2) capturing these animals and putting them in wildlife parks
- (3) feeding and constructing shelters for these organisms
- (4) passing laws that encourage hunting of the predators of these species
25. The interaction of which two systems provides the molecules needed for the metabolic activity that takes place at ribosomes?
- (1) digestive and circulatory
- (2) reproductive and excretory
- (3) immune and nervous
- (4) respiratory and muscular
26. The swordfish contains a heat generating organ that warms its brain and eyes up to 14°C above the surrounding ocean water temperature. Which structures are most likely to be found at relatively high concentrations within the cells of this heat generating organ?
- (1) nuclei
- (2) chloroplasts
- (3) chromosomes
- (4) mitochondria
27. Two species of animals with a similar appearance live in the same habitat but do not compete for food. This is because they most likely
- (1) reproduce at different times of the year
- (2) are the same size
- (3) occupy different ecological niches
- (4) are active at night
28. During its annual migration, the red knot, a medium-size shorebird, flies the entire length of North and South America. During one critical stop to feed on the eggs of horseshoe crabs, the birds nearly double their body mass. The relationship between the red knot and the horseshoe crab is that of
- (1) parasite–host
- (2) consumer–producer
- (3) scavenger–producer
- (4) predator–prey
29. It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce
- (1) antigens to fight the flu virus
- (2) antibodies against the flu virus
- (3) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus
- (4) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus
30. The diagram below represents a process that occurs during normal human development.
Which statement is correct regarding the cells and DNA?
- (1) All the cells have identical DNA.
- (2) The DNA of the fertilized egg differs from the DNA of all the other cells.
- (3) The DNA of the fertilized egg differs from some, but not all, of the other cells.
- (4) Only the fertilized egg contains DNA.
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