Living Environment January 2007

Living Environment January 2007 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Friday, January 26, 2007 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. When brown tree snakes were accidentally introduced onto the island of Guam, they had no natural predators. These snakes sought out and ate many of the eggs of insect-eating birds. What probably occurred following the introduction of the brown tree snakes?

  • (1) The bird population increased.
  • (2) The insect population increased.
  • (3) The bird population began to seek a new food source.
  • (4) The insect population began to seek a new food source.
Answer: (2) The insect population increased.

2. What will most likely happen to wastes containing nitrogen produced as a result of the breakdown of amino acids within liver cells of a mammal?

  • (1) They will be digested by enzymes in the stomach.
  • (2) They will be removed by the excretory system.
  • (3) They will be destroyed by specialized blood cells.
  • (4) They will be absorbed by mitochondria in nearby cells.
Answer: (2) They will be removed by the excretory system.

3. Which sequence represents the correct order of organization in complex organisms?

  • (1) tissues → organs → systems → cells
  • (2) organs → tissues → systems → cells
  • (3) systems → organs → cells → tissues
  • (4) cells → tissues → organs → systems
Answer: (4) cells → tissues → organs → systems

4. Which organelle is correctly paired with its specific function?

  • (1) cell membrane—storage of hereditary information
  • (2) chloroplast—transport of materials
  • (3) ribosome—synthesis of proteins
  • (4) vacuole—production of ATP
Answer: (3) ribosome—synthesis of proteins

5. Homeostasis in unicellular organisms depends on the proper functioning of

  • (1) organelles
  • (2) insulin
  • (3) guard cells
  • (4) antibodies
Answer: (1) organelles

6. Which statement best explains the change shown in the diagram below?

Living Environment January 2007
  • (1) Gene expression in an organism can be modified by interactions with the environment.
  • (2) Certain rabbits produce mutations that affect genes in specific areas of the body.
  • (3) Sorting and recombination of genes can be influenced by very cold temperatures.
  • (4) Molecular arrangement in existing proteins can be altered by environmental factors.
Answer: (1) Gene expression in an organism can be modified by interactions with the environment.

7. After a rabbit population reaches the carrying capacity of its habitat, the population of rabbits will most likely

  • (1) decrease, only
  • (2) increase, only
  • (3) alternately increase and decrease
  • (4) remain unchanged
Answer: (3) alternately increase and decrease 

8. Variation in the offspring of sexually reproducing organisms is the direct result of

  • (1) sorting and recombining of genes
  • (2) replication and cloning
  • (3) the need to adapt and maintain homeostasis
  • (4) overproduction of offspring and competition
Answer: (1) sorting and recombining of genes

9. An error in genetic information present in a body cell of a mammal would most likely produce

  • (1) rapid evolution of the organism in which the cell is found
  • (2) a mutation that will affect the synthesis of a certain protein in the cell
  • (3) an adaptation that will be passed on to other types of cells
  • (4) increased variation in the type of organelles present in the cell
Answer: (2) a mutation that will affect the synthesis of a certain protein in the cell

10. Which process is illustrated in the diagram below?

Living Environment January 2007
  • (1) chromatography
  • (2) direct harvesting
  • (3) meiosis
  • (4) genetic engineering
Answer: (4) genetic engineering

11. Which statement is most closely related to the modern theory of evolution?

  • (1) Characteristics that are acquired during life are passed to offspring by sexual reproduction.
  • (2) Evolution is the result of mutations and recombination, only.
  • (3) Organisms best adapted to a changed environment are more likely to reproduce and pass their genes to offspring.
  • (4) Asexual reproduction increases the survival of species.
Answer: (3) Organisms best adapted to a changed environment are more likely to reproduce and pass their genes to offspring.

12. In 1993, there were only 30 panthers in Florida. They were all closely related and many had reproductive problems. To avoid extinction and restore health to the population, biologists introduced 8 female panthers from Texas. Today, there are more than 80 panthers in Florida and most individuals have healthy reproductive systems. The success of this program was most likely due to the fact that the introduced females

  • (1) produced more reproductive cells than the male panthers in Texas
  • (2) solved the reproductive problems of the species by asexual methods
  • (3) increased the genetic variability of the panther population in Florida
  • (4) mated only with panthers from Texas
Answer: (3) increased the genetic variability of the panther population in Florida 

13. The least genetic variation will probably be found in the offspring of organisms that reproduce using

  • (1) mitosis to produce a larger population
  • (2) meiosis to produce gametes
  • (3) fusion of eggs and sperm to produce zygotes
  • (4) internal fertilization to produce an embryo
Answer: (1) mitosis to produce a larger population

14. Woolly mammoths became extinct thousands of years ago, while other species of mammals that existed at that time still exist today. These other species of mammals most likely exist today because, unlike the mammoths, they

  • (1) produced offspring that all had identical inheritable characteristics
  • (2) did not face a struggle for survival
  • (3) learned to migrate to new environments
  • (4) had certain inheritable traits that enabled them to survive
Answer: (4) had certain inheritable traits that enabled them to survive

15. Marine sponges contain a biological catalyst that blocks a certain step in the separation of chromosomes. Which cellular process would be directly affected by this catalyst?

  • (1) mitosis
  • (2) diffusion
  • (3) respiration
  • (4) photosynthesis
Answer: (1) mitosis

16. A tree produces only seedless oranges. A small branch cut from this tree produces roots after it is planted in soil. When mature, this new tree will most likely produce

  • (1) oranges with seeds, only
  • (2) oranges without seeds, only
  • (3) a majority of oranges with seeds and only a few oranges without seeds
  • (4) oranges and other kinds of fruit
Answer: (2) oranges without seeds, only

17. The diagram below represents a human reproductive system.

Living Environment January 2007

Meiosis occurs within structure

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (4) D

18. Which statement about embryonic organ development in humans is accurate?

  • (1) It is affected primarily by the eating habits and general health of the father.
  • (2) It may be affected by the diet and general health of the mother.
  • (3) It will not be affected by any medication taken by the mother in the second month of pregnancy.
  • (4) It is not affected by conditions outside the embryo.
Answer: (2) It may be affected by the diet and general health of the mother.

19. Experiments revealed the following information about a certain molecule:

— It can be broken down into amino acids.
— It can break down proteins into amino acids.
— It is found in high concentrations in the small intestine of humans.

This molecule is most likely

  • (1) an enzyme
  • (2) an inorganic compound
  • (3) a hormone
  • (4) an antigen
Answer: (1) an enzyme

20. The diagram below represents a structure involved in cellular respiration.

Living Environment January 2007

The release of which substance is represented by the arrows?

  • (1) glucose
  • (2) oxygen
  • (3) carbon dioxide
  • (4) DNA
Answer: (3) carbon dioxide

21. Scientists have genetically altered a common virus so that it can destroy the most lethal type of brain tumor without harming the healthy tissue nearby. This technology is used for all of the following except

  • (1) treating the disease
  • (2) curing the disease
  • (3) controlling the disease
  • (4) diagnosing the disease
Answer: (4) diagnosing the disease

22. Many species of plants interact with harmless underground fungi. The fungi enable the plants to absorb certain essential minerals and the plants provide the fungi with carbohydrates and other nutrients. This describes an interaction between a

  • (1) parasite and its host
  • (2) predator and its prey
  • (3) scavenger and a decomposer
  • (4) producer and a consumer
Answer: (4) producer and a consumer

23. In an ocean, the growth and survival of seaweed, small fish, and sharks depends on abiotic factors such as

  • (1) sunlight, temperature, and minerals
  • (2) sunlight, pH, and type of seaweed
  • (3) number of decomposers, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen
  • (4) number of herbivores, carbon, and food
Answer: (1) sunlight, temperature, and minerals

24. A basketball player develops speed and power as a result of practice. This athletic ability will not be passed on to her offspring because

  • (1) muscle cells do not carry genetic information
  • (2) mutations that occur in body cells are not inherited
  • (3) gametes do not carry complete sets of genetic information
  • (4) base sequences in DNA are not affected by this activity
Answer: (4) base sequences in DNA are not affected by this activity

25. Carbon dioxide containing carbon-14 is introduced into a balanced aquarium ecosystem. After several weeks, carbon-14 will most likely be present in

  • (1) the plants, only
  • (2) the animals, only
  • (3) both the plants and animals
  • (4) neither the plants nor animals
Answer: (3) both the plants and animals  

26. Which situation is a result of human activities?

  • (1) decay of leaves in a forest adds to soil fertility
  • (2) acid rain in an area kills fish in a lake
  • (3) ecological succession following volcanic activity reestablishes an ecosystem
  • (4) natural selection on an island changes gene frequencies
Answer: (2) acid rain in an area kills fish in a lake 

27. Which human activity will most likely have a negative effect on global stability?

  • (1) decreasing water pollution levels
  • (2) increasing recycling programs
  • (3) decreasing habitat destruction
  • (4) increasing world population growth
Answer: (4) increasing world population growth

28. Which process helps reduce global warming?

  • (1) decay
  • (2) industrialization
  • (3) photosynthesis
  • (4) burning
Answer: (3) photosynthesis

29. Which phrase belongs in box X of the flowchart below?

Living Environment January 2007
  • (1) Increased chance of cancer
  • (2) Increase in the production of functional gametes
  • (3) Decrease in genetic variability of offspring
  • (4) Decreased number of altered genes
Answer: (1) Increased chance of cancer

30. The data in the table below indicate the presence of specific reproductive hormones in blood samples taken from three individuals. An X in the hormone column indicates a positive lab test for the appropriate levels necessary for normal reproductive functioning in that individual.

Living Environment January 2007

Which processes could occur in individual 3?

  • (1) production of sperm, only
  • (2) production of sperm and production of eggs
  • (3) production of eggs and embryonic development
  • (4) production of eggs, only
Answer: (1) production of sperm, only

Living Environment January 2007 Questions Answers Keys

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