Living Environment January 2005

Living Environment January 2005 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Friday, January 28, 2005 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The graph below shows the results of an experiment in which a container of oxygen-using bacteria and strands of a green alga were exposed to light of different colors.

Living Environment January 2005

Which statement best explains the results of this experiment?

  • (1) The rate of photosynthesis is affected by variations in the light.
  • (2) In all environments light is a vital resource.
  • (3) The activities of bacteria and algae are not related.
  • (4) Uneven numbers and types of species can upset ecosystem stability
Answer: (1) The rate of photosynthesis is affected by variations in the light.

2. Which statement best describes the relationship between cells, DNA, and proteins?

  • (1) Cells contain DNA that controls the production of proteins.
  • (2) DNA is composed of proteins that carry coded information for how cells function.
  • (3) Proteins are used to produce cells that link amino acids together into DNA.
  • (4) Cells are linked together by proteins to make different kinds of DNA molecules.
Answer: (1) Cells contain DNA that controls the production of proteins.

3. The graph below shows the relative concentrations of different ions inside and outside of an animal cell.

Living Environment January 2005

Which process is directly responsible for the net movement of K+ and Mg++ into the animal cell?

  • (1) electrophoresis
  • (2) diffusion
  • (3) active transport
  • (4) circulation
Answer: (3) active transport

4. Which sequence of terms represents a decrease from the greatest number of structures to the least number of structures present in a cell?

  • (1) nucleus → gene → chromosome
  • (2) gene → nucleus → chromosome
  • (3) gene → chromosome → nucleus
  • (4) chromosome → gene → nucleus
Answer: (3) gene → chromosome → nucleus

5. An established ecosystem may remain stable over hundreds of years because

  • (1) species interdependence is absent
  • (2) there is a lack of variety in the species
  • (3) no competition exists between the species
  • (4) there are natural checks on species
Answer: (4) there are natural checks on species

6. Which two organ systems provide materials required for the human body to produce ATP?

  • (1) reproductive and excretory
  • (2) digestive and respiratory
  • (3) respiratory and immune
  • (4) digestive and reproductive
Answer: (2) digestive and respiratory

7. Some human body cells are shown in the diagrams below.

Living Environment January 2005

These groups of cells represent different

  • (1) tissues in which similar cells function together
  • (2) organs that help to carry out a specific life activity
  • (3) systems that are responsible for a specific life activity
  • (4) organelles that carry out different functions
Answer: (1) tissues in which similar cells function together

8. Which process is least likely to add to the variety of traits in a population?

  • (1) deletion of bases from DNA
  • (2) genetic engineering
  • (3) accurate replication of DNA
  • (4) exchange of segments between chromosomes
Answer: (3) accurate replication of DNA 

9. Strawberries can reproduce by means of runners, which are stems that grow horizontally along the ground. At the region of the runner that touches the ground, a new plant develops. The new plant is genetically identical to the parent because

  • (1) it was produced sexually
  • (2) nuclei traveled to the new plant through the runner to fertilize it
  • (3) it was produced asexually
  • (4) there were no other strawberry plants in the area to provide fertilization
Answer: (3) it was produced asexually

10. Genes involved in the production of abnormal red blood cells have an abnormal sequence of

  • (1) ATP molecules
  • (2) amino acids
  • (3) sugars
  • (4) bases
Answer: (4) bases

11. Research has shown that certain body cells, known as stem cells, can develop into a variety of specialized cells. Various factors can cause stem cells to develop into different types of mature cells. These different types of mature cells result from

  • (1) different antibodies and mitotic cell division
  • (2) identical genetic codes and meiotic cell division
  • (3) different environments of the cells and the functioning of different parts of the genetic code
  • (4) similar steps in the development of the cells and a reduction in the number of chromosomes in each cell
Answer: (3) different environments of the cells and the functioning of different parts of the genetic code

12. Which statement describing a cause of extinction includes the other three?

  • (1) Members of the extinct species were unable to compete for food.
  • (2) Members of the extinct species were unable to conceal their presence by camouflage.
  • (3) Members of the extinct species lacked adaptations essential for survival.
  • (4) Members of the extinct species were too slow to escape from predators.
Answer: (3) Members of the extinct species lacked adaptations essential for survival.

13. Scientists compared fossil remains of a species that lived 5,000 years ago with members of the same species living today. Scientists concluded that this species had changed very little over the entire time period. Which statement best accounts for this lack of change?

  • (1) The environment changed significantly and those offspring without favorable characteristics died.
  • (2) The environment changed significantly, but the species had no natural enemies for a long period of time.
  • (3) The environment did not change significantly and those offspring expressing new characteristics survived their natural enemies.
  • (4) The environment did not change significantly and those offspring expressing new characteristics did not survive.
Answer: (4) The environment did not change significantly and those offspring expressing new characteristics did not survive.

14. Which statement is true of both mitosis and meiosis?

  • (1) Both are involved in asexual reproduction.
  • (2) Both occur only in reproductive cells.
  • (3) The number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
  • (4) DNA replication occurs before the division of the nucleus.
Answer: (4) DNA replication occurs before the division of the nucleus.

15. A cell resulting from the fertilization of an egg begins to divide. Two cells are formed that normally remain attached and could develop into a new individual. If the two cells become separated, which statement describes what would most likely occur?

  • (1) The cells would each have all of the needed genetic information, and both could survive.
  • (2) The cells would each have only one-half of the needed genetic information, so both would die.
  • (3) One cell would have all of the needed genetic information and would survive, but the other would have none of the needed genetic information and would die.
  • (4) Each cell would have some of the needed genetic information, but would be unable to share it, so both would die.
Answer: (1) The cells would each have all of the needed genetic information, and both could survive. 

16. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome in the body cells of humans. This extra chromosome occurs in a gamete as a result of

  • (1) an error in the process of cloning
  • (2) an error in meiotic cell division
  • (3) a gene mutation
  • (4) replication of a single chromosome during mitosis
Answer: (2) an error in meiotic cell division 

17. The graphs below show the changes in the relative concentrations of two gases in the air surrounding a group of mice.

Living Environment January 2005

Which process in the mice most likely accounts for the changes shown?

  • (1) active transport
  • (2) evaporation
  • (3) respiration
  • (4) photosynthesis
Answer: (3) respiration

18. Plants in areas with short growing seasons often have more chloroplasts in their cells than plants in areas with longer growing seasons. Compared to plants in areas with longer growing seasons, plants in areas with shorter growing seasons most likely

  • (1) make and store food more quickly
  • (2) have a higher rate of protein metabolism
  • (3) grow taller
  • (4) have a different method of respiration
Answer: (1) make and store food more quickly

19. The reason that organisms can not produce populations of unlimited size is that

  • (1) the resources of Earth are finite
  • (2) there is no carrying capacity on Earth
  • (3) species rarely compete with one another
  • (4) interactions between organisms are unchanging
Answer: (1) the resources of Earth are finite 

20. Which activity is not a function of white blood cells in response to an invasion of the body by bacteria?

  • (1) engulfing these bacteria
  • (2) producing antibodies to act against this type of bacteria
  • (3) preparing for future invasions of this type of bacteria
  • (4) speeding transmissions of nerve impulses to detect these bacteria
Answer: (4) speeding transmissions of nerve impulses to detect these bacteria

21. The graph below shows the effect of temperature on the relative rate of action of enzyme X on a protein.

Living Environment January 2005

Which change would not affect the relative rate of action of enzyme X?

  • (1) the addition of cold water when the reaction is at 50°C
  • (2) an increase in temperature from 70°C to 80°C
  • (3) the removal of the protein when the reaction is at 30°C
  • (4) a decrease in temperature from 40°C to 10°C
Answer: (2) an increase in temperature from 70°C to 80°C

22. When organisms break the bonds of organic compounds, the organisms can

  • (1) use the smaller molecules to plug the gaps in the cell membrane to slow diffusion
  • (2) use the energy obtained to digest molecules produced by respiration that uses oxygen
  • (3) obtain energy or reassemble the resulting materials to form different compounds
  • (4) excrete smaller amounts of solid waste materials during vigorous exercise
Answer: (3) obtain energy or reassemble the resulting materials to form different compounds

23. Which statement about the pyramid of energy shown below is correct?

Living Environment January 2005
  • (1) The amount of energy needed to sustain the pyramid enters at level D.
  • (2) The total amount of energy decreases with each successive feeding level from D to A.
  • (3) The amount of energy is identical in each level of the pyramid.
  • (4) The total amount of energy at level D is less than the total amount of energy at level B.
Answer: (4) The total amount of energy at level D is less than the total amount of energy at level B.

24. Some organizations are buying up sections of forest land. Once purchased, these sections of forest will never be cut down. The main reason for protecting these sections of forest is to

  • (1) cause the extinction of undesirable animal species
  • (2) prevent these trees from reproducing too fast
  • (3) maintain the diversity of the living environment
  • (4) provide more land for agricultural purposes
Answer: (3) maintain the diversity of the living environment 

25. The rapid destruction of tropical rain forests may be harmful because

  • (1) removing trees will prevent scientists from studying ecological succession
  • (2) genetic material that may be useful for future medical discoveries will be lost
  • (3) energy cycling in the environment will stop
  • (4) the removal of trees will limit the construction of factories that will pollute the environment
Answer: (2) genetic material that may be useful for future medical discoveries will be lost

26. The graph below shows the different concentrations of female reproductive hormones A, B, C, and D over a 28-day cycle.

Living Environment January 2005

Although the data used to make this graph was originally entered in a data table, most scientists prefer to see the information in the form of a graph because

  • (1) the information in a graph is more accurate than the information in a data table
  • (2) it is easier to see relationships between variables in a graph than in a data table
  • (3) it is possible to put more information in a graph than in a data table
  • (4) only graphs can be used to predict future trends
Answer: (2) it is easier to see relationships between variables in a graph than in a data table 

27. Part of embryonic development in a species is illustrated in the diagram below.

Living Environment January 2005

Which set of factors plays the most direct role in controlling the events shown in the diagram?

  • (1) genes, hormones, and cell location
  • (2) antibodies, insulin, and starch
  • (3) ATP, amino acids, and inorganic compounds
  • (4) abiotic resources, homeostasis, and selective breeding
Answer: (1) genes, hormones, and cell location

28. Which of the stages in the diagram below consists of plant species that modify the environment, eventually making it more suitable for another community?

Living Environment January 2005
  • (1) grass stage, only
  • (2) grass, shrub, and pine forest stages
  • (3) shrub, pine forest, and hardwood forest stages
  • (4) hardwood forest stage, only
Answer: (2) grass, shrub, and pine forest stages

29. Increased production of goods makes our lives more comfortable, but causes an increase in the demand for energy and other resources. One negative impact of this situation on ecosystems is an increase in

  • (1) living space for wildlife
  • (2) renewable resources
  • (3) the diversity of plant species
  • (4) pollution levels in the atmosphere
Answer: (4) pollution levels in the atmosphere

30. Humans are responsible for some of the negative changes that occur in nature because they

  • (1) have encouraged the development of wildlife refuges and parks
  • (2) have passed laws to preserve the environment
  • (3) are able to preserve scarce resources
  • (4) are able to modify habitats more than any other species
Answer: (4) are able to modify habitats more than any other species

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