Living Environment August 2017

Regents Living Environment August 2017 Questions Answers Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Thursday, August 17, 2017 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Living Environment August 2017 Questions

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.) A fruit fly is classified as a consumer rather than as a producer because it is unable to

  • (1) reproduce asexually
  • (2) synthesize its own food
  • (3) release energy stored in organic molecules
  • (4) remove wastes from its body
Answer: (2) synthesize its own food

2.) Which change is an example of maintaining dynamic equilibrium?

  • (1) A plant wilts when more water is lost from the leaves than is lost by the roots.
  • (2) A plant turns yellow when light levels are very low.
  • (3) Insulin is released when glucose levels in the blood are high.
  • (4) A person sweats when the environmental temperature is low
Answer: (3) Insulin is released when glucose levels in the blood are high. 

3.) Organisms contain compounds such as proteins, starches, and fats. The chemical bonds in these compounds can be a source of

  • (1) amino acids
  • (3) energy
  • (2) simple sugars
  • (4) enzymes
Answer: (3) energy 

4.) Phosphorus is necessary for the growth of healthy plants. Scientists are developing plants that can grow in phosphorus-poor soil. Some of these new varieties, produced in a lab, make extra copies of a protein that helps them obtain more phosphorus from the soil. The process being used to develop these new varieties is most likely

  • (1) paper chromatography
  • (2) natural selection
  • (3) direct harvesting
  • (4) genetic engineering
Answer: (4) genetic engineering 

5.) Which life function is not necessary for an individual organism to stay alive?

  • (1) nutrition
  • (2) reproduction
  • (3) regulation
  • (4) excretion
Answer: (2) reproduction 

6.) Lobsters prey on sea hares, which are marine animals. The lobsters find their prey through a sense of smell. The sea hares defend themselves by squirting ink at the lobster, as shown in the photo below. The ink sticks to the lobster, interfering with its sense of smell.

Living Environment August 2017 Question 7

The most likely reason the sea hare can escape is because of the sea hare ink

  • (1) pushes the sea hare away rapidly as the ink is expelled
  • (2) blocks a receptor on certain cells in the lobster
  • (3) causes the lobster to change its prey
  • (4) prevents movement of the lobster
Answer: (2) blocks a receptor on certain cells in the lobster 

7 Which statement is an accurate description of genes?

  • (1) Proteins are made of genes and code for DNA.
  • (2) Genes are made of proteins that code for nitrogen bases.
  • (3) DNA is made of carbohydrates that code for genes.
  • (4) Genes are made of DNA and code for proteins.
Answer: (4) Genes are made of DNA and code for proteins. 

8 The bobolink is a small blackbird that nests in fields of tall grass. It breeds in the summer
across much of southern Canada and the northern United States. It migrates long distances, wintering in southern South America. The numbers of these birds are declining due to disruption of the areas where they live.

Regents Living Environment August 2017 Questions 8

In order to save these birds from extinction, the best course of action would be to

  • (1) prevent the birds from migrating to South America
  • (2) encourage farmers to let their hay fields undergo succession
  • (3) work to protect bobolink habitats in South and North America
  • (4) capture all the bobolinks and keep them safe in zoos
Answer: (3) work to protect bobolink habitats in South and North America 

9 A child with cystic fibrosis has an altered protein in his cells that stops chloride ions from leaving the cells. This protein most likely affects the functioning of

  • (1) cell membranes
  • (2) nuclei
  • (3) mitochondria
  • (4) ribosomes
Answer: (1) cell membranes 

10 Which row in the chart below shows a direct relationship that can exist between two living
organisms?

  • (1) producer – carnivore
  • (2) predator – prey
  • (3) parasite – prey
  • (4) carnivore – host
Answer: (2) predator – prey 

11 Scientists have studied the return of plant life on Mount St. Helens ever since the volcano erupted in 1980. Wildflowers began colonizing the area, followed by shrubs and small trees. Scientists predict that it will likely take hundreds of years before the area returns to a forest dominated by fir and hemlock trees. These changes are an example of

  • (1) humans degrading an ecosystem by removing wildflowers
  • (2) the loss of genetic variation in a plant species
  • (3) the growth of a forest through ecological succession
  • (4) the biological evolution of wildflowers, shrubs, and trees
Answer: (3) the growth of a forest through ecological succession 

12 The most likely result of completely removing carbon dioxide from the environment of a plant is that sugar production will 

  • (1) continue at the same rate
  • (2) increase and oxygen production will also increase
  • (3) increase and oxygen production will stay the same
  • (4) decrease and eventually stop
Answer: (4) decrease and eventually stop 

13 Before a new shopping center can be built on previously undeveloped land, the builders must submit a proposal to the local government for approval. Which statement identifies an environmental concern associated with the development of the shopping center?

  • (1) Building the center would decrease resources needed by local organisms.
  • (2) The new shopping center would increase competition with already existing businesses.
  • (3) Building the center would decrease the amount of pollution in the area.
  • (4) The new shopping center would increase the biodiversity of the area.
Answer: (1) Building the center would decrease resources needed by local organisms. 

14 Homeowners have been encouraged to learn how to identify invasive plants and to remove them if they find them. The most likely reason for removing invasive plants is to

  • (1) allow only one type of native plant to grow
  • (2) preserve biodiversity
  • (3) eliminate unfamiliar food sources
  • (4) increase the rate of ecological succession
Answer: (2) preserve biodiversity 

15 Which row in the chart below correctly pairs a human activity with its impact on the environment?

RowHuman ActivityImpact
(1)decrease in the use of pesticideserosion of rock in the soil
(2)increase in housing developmentsimprovement in air quality
(3)increase in human populationreduction in water usage
(4)decrease in recyclingreduction in amount of available resources
Answer: (4) decrease in recycling 

16 The diagram below represents some steps in a procedure used in the field of biotechnology.

This bacterial cell can now be used to produce

  • (1) the bacterial gene for insulin that can be inserted into humans
  • (2) human genes for enzymes that can be inserted into humans
  • (3) insulin that can be used by humans
  • (4) enzymes necessary to treat human diseases
Answer: (3) insulin that can be used by humans 

17 The graph below represents the number of brown and green beetles collected in a particular ecosystem.

The change observed in the number of green and brown beetles in the population is most likely due to

  • (1) natural selection
  • (2) selective breeding
  • (3) gene manipulation
  • (4) a common ancestor
Answer: (1) natural selection 

18 A reproductive system is represented in the diagram below.

Which structure is correctly paired with its reproductive function?

  • (1) A – pathway of gametes
  • (2) B – synthesis of progesterone
  • (3) C – production of sperm
  • (4) D – regulation of homeostasis
Answer: (1) A – pathway of gametes 

19 For centuries, humans have used resources from coastal areas and open ocean waters. An example of an activity that would promote the conservation of coastal areas and ocean resources is

  • (1) harvesting large numbers of different fish species
  • (2) allowing all-terrain vehicles access to beach areas
  • (3) creating protected zones of natural grasses and shrubs in beach areas
  • (4) encouraging the construction of factories along the ocean shoreline
Answer: (3) creating protected zones of natural grasses and shrubs in beach areas 

20 Which activity would eventually result in a stable ecosystem?

  • (1) deforestation in an area to increase space for the species living there
  • (2) mowing a large field so it can be used for recreation
  • (3) allowing native plants to grow undisturbed in an abandoned field
  • (4) spraying pesticides on a field at the end of each growing season
Answer: (3) allowing native plants to grow undisturbed in an abandoned field 

21 Some states require shoppers to pay a deposit on certain beverage containers made of plastic and glass. When shoppers return the containers, their deposits are returned to them. How is this system intended to help the environment? 

  • (1) It encourages people to buy products that do not have a deposit.
  • (2) It reduces the amount of money shoppers actually spend.
  • (3) It reduces the number of plastics and glass put into landfills.
  • (4) It forces manufacturers to reduce air pollution when they are making the containers.
Answer: (3) It reduces the number of plastics and glass put into landfills. 

22 The diagram below represents a food web.

Which level contains organisms that carry out autotrophic nutrition?

  • (1) 1
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 3
  • (4) 4
Answer: (1) 1 

23 Mad cow disease is a fatal disease that destroys brain tissue. Researchers have found that a prion protein, which is an abnormally constructed molecule, is responsible. Which statement best describes the characteristics a protein must have to function correctly?

  • (1) A protein is a long chain of amino acids folded into a specific shape.
  • (2) A protein is a long chain of simple sugars folded into a specific shape.
  • (3) A protein is made of amino acids synthesized into a short, circular chain.
  • (4) A protein is made of simple sugars synthesized into a short, circular chain.
Answer: (1) A protein is a long chain of amino acids folded into a specific shape. 

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