Living Environment August 2016

Living Environment August 2016 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Thursday, August 18, 2016 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Which sequence represents structures organized from most complex to least complex?

  • (1) chloroplast → guard cell → leaf → oak tree
  • (2) guard cell → chloroplast → leaf → oak tree
  • (3) oak tree → guard cell → leaf → chloroplast
  • (4) oak tree → leaf → guard cell → chloroplast
Answer: (4) oak tree → leaf → guard cell → chloroplast

2. Autotrophs differ from heterotrophs in that only autotrophs

  • (1) require carbon dioxide for cellular respiration
  • (2) release oxygen as a product of cellular respiration
  • (3) synthesize nutrients using carbon dioxide and water
  • (4) break down sugars to assemble other molecules
Answer: (3) synthesize nutrients using carbon dioxide and water 

3. Burmese pythons are large snakes that have been introduced into the Florida Everglades ecosystem. Burmese pythons and alligators hunt the same prey. One likely effect of the introduction of the pythons is that

  • (1) alligators will have more prey available
  • (2) pythons will become native to the Everglades
  • (3) alligator populations will decline
  • (4) pythons will become an endangered species
Answer: (3) alligator populations will decline

4. Which activity enables humans to produce new genetic combinations in other organisms?

  • (1) selecting and breeding the organisms for specific traits
  • (2) increasing the number of enzymes available to the organisms
  • (3) growing organisms that reproduce asexually
  • (4) decreasing the amount of DNA in the diet of the organisms
Answer: (1) selecting and breeding the organisms for specific traits

5. Before a cell divides, an exact copy of each chromosome is made by the process of

  • (1) genetic engineering
  • (3) mutation
  • (2) replication
  • (4) recombination
Answer: (2) replication

6. Some time ago, there were thousands of California condors in North America. Large numbers were poisoned from lead in bullets that were used to kill the animals the condors fed on. An effort was made to help save this large scavenger. There are now more than 350 California condors in North America. The condors most likely increased in number because humans decided to

  • (1) produce lead-resistant condors through asexual reproduction
  • (2) pass laws against using lead bullets to kill animals used by condors for food
  • (3) introduce plants that didn’t absorb the lead from discharged bullets
  • (4) produce lead-resistant prey for the condors through genetic engineering
Answer: (2) pass laws against using lead bullets to kill animals used by condors for food

7. In humans, the maintenance of a stable internal temperature is a direct result of

  • (1) detection of and reaction to stimuli in the environment
  • (2) digestion of starches and absorption of protein from the internal environment
  • (3) diffusion of water and excretion of glucose to the external environment
  • (4) transport of ATP and locomotion through the environment
Answer: (1) detection of and reaction to stimuli in the environment 

8. Which molecules are needed to cut and copy segments of DNA?

  • (1) reproductive hormones
  • (2) carbohydrates
  • (3) antibodies
  • (4) biological catalysts
Answer: (4) biological catalysts

9. Evolution can occur at different rates; however, for evolution to occur, there must be

  • (1) variations within a species
  • (2) extinction of the species
  • (3) asexual reproduction
  • (4) no change in the genes of an organism
Answer: (1) variations within a species

10. The two reactions illustrated in the diagrams below often occur when a foreign substance enters the body
The cells labeled A and B are examples of cells known as

  • (1) guard cells
  • (2) reproductive cells
  • (3) white blood cells
  • (4) specialized skin cells
Answer: (3) white blood cells

11. The diagram below represents a protein molecule present in some living things.

Living Environment August 2016 Question 11

This type of molecule is composed of a sequence of

  • (1) amino acids arranged in a specific order
  • (2) simple sugars alternating with starches arranged in a folded pattern
  • (3) large inorganic subunits that form chains that interlock with each other
  • (4) four bases that make up the folded structure
Answer: (1) amino acids arranged in a specific order

12. Three human actions that have been made possible in recent times are:

  • Doctors are able to diagnose and treat some fetal problems prior to the birth of a child.
  • Cloning can produce large numbers of plants that are resistant to drought.
  • Male insects can be sterilized with radiation to prevent them from mating successfully.

Which statement summarizes these three actions?

  • (1) Reproductive technology has medical, agricultural, and ecological applications.
  • (2) Development is a highly regulated process involving mitosis and differentiation.
  • (3) Reproduction and development are subject to environmental effects.
  • (4) Human development, birth, and aging should be viewed as a predictable pattern of events.
Answer: (1) Reproductive technology has medical, agricultural, and ecological applications.

13. Natural selection is best described as

  • (1) a change in an organism in response to a need of that organism
  • (2) a process of nearly constant improvement that leads to an organism that is nearly perfect
  • (3) differences in survival rates as a result of different inherited characteristics
  • (4) inheritance of characteristics acquired during the life of an organism
Answer: (3) differences in survival rates as a result of different inherited characteristics

14. Which statement best describes a situation where competition occurs in an ecosystem?

  • (1) A deer outruns an attacking wolf.
  • (2) A deer, during the winter, consumes tree bark.
  • (3) A deer and a rabbit consume grass in a field.
  • (4) A deer and a rabbit are both startled by a hawk flying overhead.
Answer: (3) A deer and a rabbit consume grass in a field. 

15. A woman changes her hair color to red; however, her children will not inherit this red hair color because the woman does not have

  • (1) genes for red hair in her skin
  • (2) genes for red hair in her sex cells
  • (3) proteins for red hair in the placenta
  • (4) proteins for red hair in her egg cells
Answer: (2) genes for red hair in her sex cells

16. Fossils provide evidence that

  • (1) life on Earth millions of years ago was more complex than life is today
  • (2) the changes that will occur in species in the future are easy to predict
  • (3) many species of organisms that lived long ago are now extinct
  • (4) most species of organisms that lived long ago are exactly the same today
Answer: (3) many species of organisms that lived long ago are now extinct

17. A male frigatebird displays to the female by inflating its large red throat sac, throwing its head back, vibrating its wings, and producing a “drumming” sound with its throat sac. For the frigatebird, this behavior has most likely resulted in

  • (1) hiding from predators
  • (2) greater reproductive success
  • (3) locating new sources of food
  • (4) reduced population growth
Answer: (2) greater reproductive success

18. Plant species X lives in a hot, dry environment. Slowly, over hundreds of years, the climate becomes wetter. Fungi attack species X and cause the population of species X to decrease. However, plant species X could survive if the plants

  • (1) try to mutate quickly and synthesize new proteins
  • (2) are watered often and fertilized with extra nutrients
  • (3) can adapt to the new conditions by mating with the fungus
  • (4) have a few members of the population that are fungus-resistant
Answer: (4) have a few members of the population that are fungus-resistant

19. The diagram below represents reproduction in a yeast cell. The genes in the bud are identical to the genes in the parent.

Living Environment August 2016 Question 19

This type of production of offspring is a form of

  • (1) sexual reproduction
  • (2) asexual reproduction
  • (3) gene manipulation
  • (4) genetic engineering
Answer: (2) asexual reproduction

20. A human cell that contains all of the information necessary for the growth and development of a complete organism is

  • (1) a sperm cell
  • (2) a gamete
  • (3) a zygote
  • (4) an egg cell
Answer: (3) a zygote

21. When would exposure to a potentially harmful substance be most likely to damage many organs in a developing embryo?

  • (1) during the last three months of pregnancy
  • (2) during the early stages of pregnancy
  • (3) during the formation of the zygote
  • (4) during meiosis in both males and females
Answer: (2) during the early stages of pregnancy

22. The human female reproductive system is represented below.

Living Environment August 2016 Question 22

Within which structure does the placenta normally develop?

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (4) D

23. An energy-rich organic compound needed by organisms is

  • (1) water
  • (2) salt
  • (3) oxygen
  • (4) glucose
Answer: (4) glucose 

24. SCIDS (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is a disorder where a genetic mutation inhibits the production and functioning of T-cells. T-cells are special types of white blood cells that play a role in the body’s immune response. A possible symptom of SCIDS would be an increase in the

  • (1) number of antigens produced
  • (2) red blood cell count
  • (3) number of infections by pathogens
  • (4) ability to maintain homeostasis
Answer: (3) number of infections by pathogens

25. An organ, such as a kidney, used for transplant needs to be tested for compatibility with the person who is to receive the organ. If this is not done, the

  • (1) donated organ might attack the body
  • (2) donated organ might attack the immune system
  • (3) immune system might attack its own body cells
  • (4) immune system might attack the donated organ
Answer: (4) immune system might attack the donated organ

26. A researcher concludes from a 10-year study that the biodiversity of an ecosystem had increased. Which set of observations represents evidence for this claim?

  • (1) There were more niches and greater stability in the ecosystem.
  • (2) There were more niches and less energy lost as heat in the ecosystem.
  • (3) There were fewer niches for decomposers and less stability.
  • (4) There were fewer niches for consumers and greater cycling of materials.
Answer: (1) There were more niches and greater stability in the ecosystem.

27. The final consumers in many food webs are

  • (1) autotrophs
  • (2) hosts
  • (3) herbivores
  • (4) carnivores
Answer: (4) carnivores

28. Abandoned farmland that once grew corn is now covered with bushes and small trees. These observed changes resulted directly from

  • (1) evolutionary change
  • (2) ecological succession
  • (3) loss of biodiversity
  • (4) selective breeding
Answer: (2) ecological succession

29. The overuse of chemical fertilizers has resulted in the growth of some lawns in which decomposers cannot live. This would interfere most directly with the ability of the lawn ecosystem to

  • (1) recycle energy
  • (2) recycle nutrients
  • (3) maintain atmospheric pH
  • (4) reduce biodiversity
Answer: (2) recycle nutrients

30. On Long Island, several businesses use geothermal technology. This involves taking heat from within Earth and using it to heat buildings. One benefit of this technology is that it

  • (1) contributes to global warming
  • (2) reduces the ozone shield
  • (3) reduces dependence on fossil fuels
  • (4) decreases resources for many species
Answer: (3) reduces dependence on fossil fuels

 

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