Living Environment August 2013

Living Environment August 2013 Question Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Wednesday, August 14, 2013 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only
Student Name ____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The organisms in a pond and the physical factors influencing them best describe

  • (1) a population
  • (2) an ecosystem
  • (3) a biosphere
  • (4) a food chain
Answer: (2) an ecosystem

2. Which row in the chart below best describes decomposers?

Living Environment August 2013

3. Some processes that occur in a cell are listed below

A. utilize energy
B. detect changes in the environment
C. rearrange and synthesize chemical compounds

Which processes will all living organisms use to maintain homeostasis?

  • (1) A and B, only
  • (2) B and C, only
  • (3) C and A, only
  • (4) A, B, and C
Answer: (4) A, B, and C 

4. Which cell structures are correctly paired with their functions?

  • (1) The mitochondria produce enzymes, and ribosomes transport them.
  • (2) The ribosomes make proteins, and the nucleus stores genetic information.
  • (3) The cell membrane makes enzymes, and cytoplasm transports them.
  • (4) The vacuole stores genetic information, and chloroplasts make proteins.
Answer: (2) The ribosomes make proteins, and the nucleus stores genetic information. 

5. The diagram below represents the region between two nerve cells. Cell A releases a chemical that travels to and binds with structure X on cell B.

Living Environment August 2013

Structure X most likely represents

  • (1) a receptor molecule
  • (2) an inorganic substance
  • (3) a ribosome
  • (4) an antibody
Answer: (1) a receptor molecule 

6. Over the past few thousand years, humans have helped to bring about changes in many plant and animal species in order to make them more useful. Examples include strong workhorses, hunting dogs, large-eared corn, and beautiful flower varieties. These changes were primarily brought about by humans, using the process of

  • (1) mitosis
  • (2) selective breeding
  • (3) cloning
  • (4) natural selection
Answer: (2) selective breeding 

7. Certain antibacterial soaps kill 99% of the bacteria present on hands. Constant use of these soaps could be harmful over time because

  • (1) more pathogens may be resistant to the soap
  • (2) microbes prevent viral diseases
  • (3) large populations of pathogens are beneficial to the hands
  • (4) the soap stimulates skin cell division
Answer: (1) more pathogens may be resistant to the soap 

8. Which factor would cause two specialized tissues that contain identical chromosomes to function differently?

  • (1) Specific sections of DNA molecules in the chromosomes are activated.
  • (2) All of the sections of DNA molecules in the chromosomes are activated.
  • (3) Specific sections of the amino acid molecules in the cytoplasm are activated.
  • (4) All of the amino acid molecules in the cytoplasm are activated.
Answer: (1) Specific sections of DNA molecules in the chromosomes are activated. 

9. Some variation must be present in a population in order for natural selection to take place. These variations arise from mutations in the DNA and

  • (1) sorting of chromosomes during sexual reproduction
  • (2) combining of chromosomes during organ development
  • (3) changing of chromosomes during cloning
  • (4) removal of chromosomes during selective breeding
Answer: (1) sorting of chromosomes during sexual reproduction 

10. The diagram below represents a segment of a gene on two chromosomes.

Normal gene

ATACCT

Mutated gene

ATACCT

The change in the gene sequence is an example of

  • (1) an insertion
  • (2) a deletion
  • (3) a substitution
  • (4) a replication
Answer: (3) a substitution 

11. In a certain species of insect, some individuals have flattened white disks on their bodies that protrude and interlock, resembling an orchid flower. This adaptation provides the insect with a better opportunity to capture its prey. If environmental conditions remain unchanged, it is most likely that, in future generations, the proportion of the population with this adaptation will

  • (1) increase, only
  • (2) decrease, only
  • (3) increase, then decrease
  • (4) decrease, then increase
Answer: (1) increase, only 

12. Which structure is correctly paired with its function?

  • (1) ovary — provides milk for newborns
  • (2) testis — development of sperm
  • (3) placenta — storage of released eggs
  • (4) uterus — produces estrogen
Answer: (2) testis — development of sperm 

13. The fruit fly represented in the diagram below has unusual, curled wings that formed after exposure to radiation.

Living Environment August 2013

In order for the fly to pass this trait on to its offspring, a change had to occur in

  • (1) the blood cells of the fly
  • (2) the gametes of the fly
  • (3) all the body cells of the fly
  • (4) the muscles of the fly
Answer: (2) the gametes of the fly 

14. In a population of birds, the percentage of individuals having a certain gene changes from 20% to 60% over the span of several hundred years. This situation will most likely affect the rate of

  • (1) biological evolution
  • (2) asexual reproduction
  • (3) gene mutation
  • (4) ecological succession
Answer: (1) biological evolution 

15. The finite resources of Earth are often affected by increasing human consumption. These finite resources are

  • (1) not renewable over a short period of time
  • (2) the products of rapid human population growth
  • (3) the result of deforestation
  • (4) needed to degrade ecosystems
Answer: (1) not renewable over a short period of time 

16. A student made the drawing shown below of a single-celled organism as he observed it with a compound light microscope under the high-power objective.

Living Environment August 2013

Several minutes later, he drew the diagram shown below of the same organism, using the same magnification.

Living Environment August 2013

These drawings show that the organism is carrying out the process of

  • (1) asexual reproduction
  • (2) sexual reproduction
  • (3) embryo formation
  • (4) genetic alteration
Answer: (1) asexual reproduction 

17. Which statement best describes why pathogens are harmful?

  • (1) All of the cells of an organism infected by pathogens become pathogens.
  • (2) Pathogens cannot be controlled once they enter the cells of an organism.
  • (3) Pathogens produce antibodies that will kill the host organism.
  • (4) Pathogens can interfere with normal life functions.
Answer: (4) Pathogens can interfere with normal life functions. 

18. In 1996, scientists cloned the first mammal, a sheep. This technique involved the removal of the nucleus from an egg cell. The nucleus from a cell of another adult sheep was then inserted into this egg cell. Once this cell began to develop into an embryo, it was implanted into a third female sheep that later gave birth to a healthy lamb, Dolly. Which statement concerning Dolly is correct?

  • (1) Her offspring would be genetically identical.
  • (2) Dolly and her DNA donor are genetically identical.
  • (3) Two different gametes were manipulated to produce Dolly.
  • (4) Dolly was produced by the recombination of genetic material.
Answer: (2) Dolly and her DNA donor are genetically identical. 

19. Which activity would most likely increase the mutation rate in a culture of bacteria being grown in a laboratory experiment?

  • (1) adding more distilled water to the culture
  • (2) adding excess nutrients to the culture
  • (3) exposing the culture to a higher concentration of CO2
  • (4) exposing the culture to ultraviolet radiation
Answer: (4) exposing the culture to ultraviolet radiation 

20. Which two processes are responsible for keeping the percentage of atmospheric oxygen at relatively constant levels?

  • (1) circulation and coordination
  • (2) respiration and coordination
  • (3) respiration and photosynthesis
  • (4) photosynthesis and circulation
Answer: (3) respiration and photosynthesis 

21. Chemicals that help chemical reactions occur at faster rates in living organisms are known as

  • (1) biotic resources
  • (2) simple sugars
  • (3) oxygen molecules
  • (4) organic catalysts
Answer: (4) organic catalysts 

22. The action of insulin on sugar levels in the blood helps to

  • (1) interfere with homeostasis
  • (2) maintain dynamic equilibrium
  • (3) coordinate enzyme production
  • (4) regulate digestion of protein
Answer: (2) maintain dynamic equilibrium 

23. An individual recovers from the common cold, which is caused by rhinovirus A. The person then becomes infected with the avian influenza virus, which causes the bird flu. Which statement best describes what will most likely happen to this person?

  • (1) He will have the symptoms of the bird flu because he is not immune to the avian influenza virus.
  • (2) He will have the symptoms of the common cold because he is not immune to the avian influenza virus.
  • (3) He will not have the symptoms of the bird flu because he is immune to rhinovirus A.
  • (4) He will not have the symptoms of the common cold because the avian influenza virus causes it.
Answer: (1) He will have the symptoms of the bird flu because he is not immune to the avian influenza virus. 

24. The wetland plant purple loosestrife was imported to North America from Europe. Since its introduction, the loosestrife has spread, which has resulted in a dramatic decline in the biological diversity of native wetland plants. A likely reason for the spread of the purple loosestrife is that it can

  • (1) successfully compete with native herbivores for food
  • (2) serve as an excellent food source for native herbivores
  • (3) successfully compete with native plants for space
  • (4) prevent the migration of native plants
Answer: (3) successfully compete with native plants for space 

25. Deer ticks are responsible for spreading Lyme disease. This organism, which feeds on the blood of warm-blooded organisms like mice, deer, and humans, is best described as a

  • (1) predator
  • (2) scavenger
  • (3) parasite
  • (4) host
Answer: (3) parasite 

26. Years ago, an article was written titled “Medicine Chest in the Jungle.” This article most likely described the

  • (1) potential for ecosystems to be a source for new drugs
  • (2) dangers of poisonous jungle plants and animals
  • (3) deforestation of jungles for the development of large pharmacies
  • (4) use of antibiotics to treat certain disorders in trees
Answer: (1) potential for ecosystems to be a source for new drugs 

27. After a building was torn down and the area was cleared, grasses began to grow in the area. Several years later, small bushes replaced the grasses. This pattern of plant growth is known as ecological

  • (1) stability
  • (2) cultivation
  • (3) succession
  • (4) coordination
Answer: (3) succession 

28. A human activity that could significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is

  • (1) increasing the use of fossil fuel
  • (2) controlling insect pests that eat stored grain
  • (3) burning garbage and trash to generate electricity
  • (4) preserving and expanding forest habitats that shelter wildlife
Answer: (4) preserving and expanding forest habitats that shelter wildlife 

29. Ethanol-fueled vehicles have increased in popularity as people try to be more environmentally responsible. Ethanol can be made from corn. Some farmers are clearing forests and planting large expanses of corn to meet the rising demand. Which statement describes a likely result of this increased corn production?

  • (1) There will be a reduction in the biodiversity of areas that are converted to grow corn.
  • (2) The corn will produce more carbon dioxide than it uses, contributing to global warming.
  • (3) Insect biodiversity in the area will increase.
  • (4) Growing more corn will increase the nutrient content of the soil.
Answer: (1) There will be a reduction in the biodiversity of areas that are converted to grow corn. 

30. Windmills that generate electricity are being built in coastal areas. The main benefit of these windmills is that they

  • (1) produce finite resources
  • (2) reduce dependency on fuels that cause air pollution
  • (3) absorb the noise of passing boats
  • (4) maintain the salt concentration in the ocean
Answer: (2) reduce dependency on fuels that cause air pollution 

 

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