Living Environment August 2012 Question Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Friday, August 17, 2012 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The cell represented below produces oxygen.
Which structure allows the passage of this oxygen to the environment?
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
2. The diagram below represents a cell and several molecules. The number of molecules shown represents the relative concentration of the molecules inside and outside of the cell.
Molecule B could enter the cell as a direct result of
- (1) digestion
- (2) diffusion
- (3) active transport
- (4) enzyme production
3. Which two terms are considered to be opposite processes?
- (1) photosynthesis and autotrophic nutrition
- (2) cloning and mitosis
- (3) digestion and synthesis
- (4) dynamic equilibrium and homeostasis
4. Which statement concerning cell communication is correct?
- (1) DNA codes for certain molecules that become cell receptors involved in cell communication.
- (2) Cells produce ATP molecules, which become cell receptors for communication.
- (3) Cells build new cell parts, which function as communication genes.
- (4) Certain proteins use cell communication to build new cell parts made of DNA.
5. A towel placed on a lawn for a length of time can cause the grass beneath it to lose its green color. The most probable explanation for this is that darkness
- (1) affects the expression of certain genes in the grass
- (2) causes a mutation in the plants
- (3) affects the structure of cell membranes in the grass
- (4) causes plants to switch to heterotrophic nutrition
6. Which sequence correctly represents the arrangement of structures containing genetic material, from the largest to the smallest size?
- (1) chromosome → gene → nucleus
- (2) nucleus → chromosome → gene
- (3) gene → chromosome → nucleus
- (4) gene → nucleus → chromosome
7. The DNA of a fly and the DNA of a gorilla are made up of subunits that are
- (1) arranged in the same order in both species
- (2) arranged in chains of the same length in both species
- (3) different bases in each of the two species
- (4) in different sequences in each of the two species
8. The diagram below represents one process that might occur in cells.
Which process is represented in the diagram?
- (1) cell reproduction
- (3) mutation
- (2) meiosis
- (4) gene replication
9. The way a protein molecule is folded determines the shape of the molecule, which determines the
- (1) function of that protein
- (2) structure of ATP containing that protein
- (3) type of simple sugars in that protein
- (4) amino acids in that protein
10. In order for a species to evolve, it must be able to
- (1) consume a large quantity of food
- (2) reproduce successfully
- (3) maintain a constant body temperature
- (4) be domesticated
11. Domestic horses have a greater diversity of coat colors than that of wild horses. The process that led to a greater diversity of coat colors in domestic horses is
- (1) selective breeding
- (3) gene alteration
- (2) random mutation
- (4) natural selection
12. A population of white moths lives in a forest near a factory. This factory burns coal and pollutes the air with black dust. Over time, this dust has settled on the trees in the area, making them darker in color. This could result in
- (1) an increase in the white moth population
- (2) a decrease in the white moth population
- (3) an increase in the number of trees in the area
- (4) a decrease in the air pollution affecting the area
13. The crucian carp, a Scandinavian fish, thrives in shallow ponds that freeze over during winter. While other creatures in the pond die from lack of oxygen, these carp are able to obtain energy through a biochemical pathway that does not require oxygen. This characteristic is an example of a
- (1) feedback mechanism common to carnivores that inhabit shallow pond ecosystems
- (2) favorable adaptive trait that has led to increased survival
- (3) stage of succession that leads to a new community
- (4) gene mutation that occurred because carp need to survive to maintain ecological stability
14. Examination of ancient rock layers at a certain location reveals many different fossils. Which conclusion can be drawn concerning the species that formed these fossils?
- (1) Only the predators are still present.
- (2) Many of them are now extinct.
- (3) They produced offspring that were all genetically identical.
- (4) They had no variations due to mutations.
15. Breathing rate is constantly being monitored and adjusted in the human body, which results in
- (1) the differentiation of mature body cells
- (2) feedback mechanisms removing damaged cells
- (3) modification of gene activity in cells
- (4) the internal environment being kept within certain limits
16. Modern technology could be used to clone pet dogs and cats. The cloned animals would resemble the original pets because
- (1) the genes of the new animals are different from those of the original pets
- (2) half of the genetic information of the new animals is the same as that of the original pets
- (3) the new animals have mutations not found in the original pets
- (4) the new animals have the same genetic information as the original pets
17. The colors and scents of plants attract helpful insects and repel insects that feed on them. The production of the proteins that provide these colors and scents is the direct result of the
- (1) behavior learned from parent plants
- (2) presence of specific genes
- (3) the genetic makeup of the surrounding vegetation
- (4) inability of plants to move as animals do
18. Which situation would be part of the normal reproductive cycle of a human?
- (1) the presence of testosterone regulating gamete production in a male
- (2) estrogen in concentrations that would produce sperm in a female
- (3) a high progesterone level in a male
- (4) a low insulin level in either a male or a female
19. What is the primary source of energy for all the organisms in the ecosystem represented below?
- (1) photosynthesis in the producers
- (2) respiration in the heterotrophs
- (3) light energy from the Sun
- (4) minerals from the rocks
20. Which statement best describes enzymes?
- (1) Every enzyme controls many different reactions.
- (2) The rate of activity of an enzyme might change as pH changes.
- (3) Temperature changes do not affect enzymes.
- (4) Enzymes are produced from the building blocks of carbohydrates.
21. More energy can be released from a fat molecule than from a glucose molecule because the fat molecule contains more
- (1) genes
- (2) organic compounds
- (3) chemical bonds
- (4) mitochondria
22. People who have AIDS are more likely than others to become ill with multiple infections because the pathogen that causes AIDS
- (1) targets many body systems
- (2) mutates, releasing toxins directly into the bloodstream
- (3) increases the rate of enzyme activity in different types of body cells
- (4) damages the immune system
23. Which organism would most likely have new gene combinations?
- (1) a frog that was produced from a skin cell of a frog
- (2) a hamster resulting from sexual reproduction
- (3) a bacterium resulting from asexual reproduction
- (4) a starfish that grew from part of a starfish
24. A certain fungus can be harmful when it infects the outermost layers of the human foot, while another type of fungus can be beneficial when it recycles nutrients by breaking down dead organisms. Which terms identify these two roles of fungi?
- (1) producer, prey
- (2) host, autotroph
- (3) parasite, decomposer
- (4) herbivore, predator
25. Shawangunk Grasslands National Wildlife Refuge has been developed from an abandoned airport to restore habitat for six species of birds that require an area rich in tall grasses. Workers must continually remove trees that are beginning to invade the area as a result of
- (1) direct harvesting
- (2) genetic engineering
- (3) evolutionary change
- (4) ecological succession
26. In order for an ecosystem to remain stable there must be
- (1) drastic modifications to the environment
- (2) interrelationships and interdependencies among organisms
- (3) limited biodiversity
- (4) gradual changes in the climate
27. Some data suggest that the average global temperature will increase by 1°C–2°C by the year 2050. If this occurs, a major concern for humans would most likely be that
- (1) sea levels might rise enough to flood some coastal areas
- (2) long-term stability of the climate will benefit ecosystems
- (3) the availability of salt water for agricultural use will increase
- (4) the threat of extinction of land organisms will decrease
28. A wetland provides a variety of services for an ecosystem, such as filtering pollutants from the water, allowing animals to lay eggs and reproduce, and producing fertile soils for plants. When humans build houses on wetland areas, they always
- (1) change this area so these processes can still take place
- (2) create new habitats for the wetland species
- (3) transport the wetland species to a new area
- (4) make changes that might not be reversible
29. Which occurrence most likely led to the other three?
- (1) Human population growth reached 6.8 billion in 2010 and it continues to increase.
- (2) The number of African elephants has declined from 1.2 million in 1979 to about 20,000 today.
- (3) Approximately 6,500 gallons of oil were spilled into a river in Illinois after a pipeline broke.
- (4) At one time, rain forests covered 14 percent of Earth and today they cover only 6 percent
30. A community is trying to decide on the location for a new shopping center. Two possible locations have been proposed, with each location having some benefits and some problems. The proper approach to deciding the best location would be to
- (1) select the site that could hold the most stores
- (2) select the site that would be the least expensive to develop
- (3) compare the problems, but not the benefits
- (4) compare the trade-offs of building at either location
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