Living Environment August 2008 Questions Answer Keys

Living Environment August 2008 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Wednesday, August 13, 2008 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Scientists studying ocean organisms are discovering new and unusual species. Which observation could be used to determine that an ocean organism carries out autotrophic nutrition?

  • (1) Chloroplasts are visible inside the cells.
  • (2) Digestive organs are visible upon dissection.
  • (3) The organism lives close to the surface.
  • (4) The organism synthesizes enzymes to digest food.
Answer: (1) Chloroplasts are visible inside the cells. 

2. Abiotic factors that characterize a forest ecosystem include

  • (1) light and biodiversity
  • (2) temperature and amount of available water
  • (3) types of producers and decomposers
  • (4) pH and number of heterotrophs
Answer: (2) temperature and amount of available water 

3. One season, there was a shortage of producers in a food web. As a result, the number of deer and wolves decreased. The reason that both the deer and wolf populations declined is that

  • (1) producers are not as important as consumers in a food web
  • (2) more consumers than producers are needed to support the food web
  • (3) organisms in this food web are interdependent
  • (4) populations tend to stay constant in a food web
Answer: (3) organisms in this food web are interdependent 

4. Which statement best describes a population of organisms if cloning is the only method used to reproduce this population?

  • (1) The population would be more likely to adapt to a changing environment.
  • (2) There would be little chance for variation within the population.
  • (3) The population would evolve rapidly.
  • (4) The mutation rate in the population would be rapid.
Answer: (2) There would be little chance for variation within the population. 

5. An organelle that releases energy for metabolic activity in a nerve cell is the

  • (1) chloroplast
  • (2) ribosome
  • (3) mitochondrion
  • (4) vacuole
Answer: (3) mitochondrion 

6. A student notices that fruit flies with the curlywing trait develop straight wings if kept at a temperature of 16°C, but develop curly wings if kept at 25°C. The best explanation for this observation is that

  • (1) wing shape is controlled by behavior
  • (2) wing shape is influenced by light intensity
  • (3) gene expression can be modified by interactions with the environment
  • (4) gene mutations for wing shape can occur at high temperatures
Answer: (3) gene expression can be modified by interactions with the environment 

7. In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are directly determined by the arrangement of the

  • (1) twenty kinds of amino acids in each protein
  • (2) twenty-three pairs of genes on each chromosome
  • (3) strands of simple sugars in certain carbohydrate molecules
  • (4) four types of molecular bases in the genes
Answer: (4) four types of molecular bases in the genes

8. Which sequence shows a decreasing level of complexity?

  • (1) organs → organism → cells → tissues
  • (2) organism → cells → organs → tissues
  • (3) cells → tissues → organs → organism
  • (4) organism → organs → tissues → cells
Answer: (4) organism → organs → tissues → cells

9. Which row in the chart below contains an event that is paired with an appropriate response in the human body?

Living Environment August 2008
Answer: (1) a virus enters the bloodstream 

10. The diagram below represents a genetic procedure

Living Environment August 2008

Which statement best describes the outcome of this procedure?

  • (1) Bacterial cells will destroy defective human genetic material.
  • (2) Bacterial cells may form a multicellular embryo.
  • (3) The inserted human DNA will change harmful bacteria to harmless ones.
  • (4) The inserted human DNA may direct the synthesis of human proteins.
Answer: (4) The inserted human DNA may direct the synthesis of human proteins.

11. The diagram below represents the genetic contents of cells before and after a specific reproductive process.

Living Environment August 2008

This process is considered a mechanism of evolution because it

  • (1) decreases the chance for new combinations of inheritable traits in a species
  • (2) decreases the probability that genes can be passed on to other body cells
  • (3) increases the chance for variations in offspring
  • (4) increases the number of offspring an organism can produce
Answer: (3) increases the chance for variations in offspring

12. One disadvantage of a genetic mutation in a human skin cell is that it

  • (1) may result in the production of a defective protein
  • (2) may alter the sequence of simple sugars in insulin molecules
  • (3) can lead to a lower mutation rate in the offspring of the human
  • (4) can alter the rate of all the metabolic processes in the human
Answer: (1) may result in the production of a defective protein

13. The DNA of a human cell can be cut and rearranged by using

  • (1) a scalpel
  • (2) electrophoresis
  • (3) hormones
  • (4) enzymes
Answer: (4) enzymes

14. Much of the carbon dioxide produced by green plants is not excreted as a metabolic waste because it

  • (1) can be used for photosynthesis
  • (2) is too large to pass through cell membranes
  • (3) is needed for cellular respiration
  • (4) can be used for the synthesis of proteins
Answer: (1) can be used for photosynthesis

15. In several species of birds, the males show off their bright colors and long feathers. The dullcolored females usually pick the brightest colored males for mates. Male offspring inherit their father’s bright colors and long feathers. Compared to earlier generations, future generations of these birds will be expected to have a greater proportion of

  • (1) bright-colored females
  • (2) dull-colored females
  • (3) dull-colored males
  • (4) bright-colored males
Answer: (4) bright-colored males

16. To determine evolutionary relationships between organisms, a comparison would most likely be made between all of the characteristics below except

  • (1) methods of reproduction
  • (2) number of their ATP molecules
  • (3) sequences in their DNA molecules
  • (4) structure of protein molecules present
Answer: (2) number of their ATP molecules

17. The females of certain species of turtles will sneak into a nest of alligator eggs to lay their own eggs and then leave, never to return. When the baby turtles hatch, they automatically hide from the mother alligator guarding the nest and go to the nearest body of water when it is safe to do so. Which statement best explains the behavior of these baby turtles?

  • (1) More of the turtles’ ancestors who acted in this way survived to reproduce, passing this behavioral trait to their offspring.
  • (2) The baby turtles are genetically identical, so they behave the same way.
  • (3) Turtles are not capable of evolving, so they repeat the same behaviors generation after generation.
  • (4) The baby turtles’ ancestors who learned to behave this way taught the behaviors to their offspring
Answer: (1) More of the turtles’ ancestors who acted in this way survived to reproduce, passing this behavioral trait to their offspring.

18. A pattern of reproduction and growth in a onecelled organism is shown below.

Living Environment August 2008

Which statement best describes this pattern of reproduction?

  • (1) All genetic material comes from one parent.
  • (2) Only some of the genetic material comes from one parent.
  • (3) The size of the parent determines the amount of genetic material.
  • (4) The size of the parent determines the source of the genetic material.
Answer: (1) All genetic material comes from one parent.

19. A technique used to reproduce plants is shown in the diagram below.

Living Environment August 2008

This technique is a form of

  • (1) sexual reproduction
  • (2) asexual reproduction
  • (3) gamete production
  • (4) gene manipulation
Answer: (2) asexual reproduction 

20. The diagram below represents a biochemical process.

Living Environment August 2008

Which molecule is represented by X?

  • (1) DNA
  • (2) starch
  • (3) protein
  • (4) ATP
Answer: (4) ATP

21. The diagram below represents early stages of embryo development.

Living Environment August 2008

The greatest amount of differentiation for organ formation most likely occurs at arrow

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (4) D

22. The diagram below shows a cell in the human body engulfing a bacterial cell

Living Environment August 2008

The cell labeled X is most likely a

  • (1) red blood cell
  • (2) white blood cell
  • (3) liver cell
  • (4) nerve cell
Answer: (2) white blood cell

23. The graph below shows the levels of glucose and insulin in the blood of a human over a period of time.

Living Environment August 2008

This graph represents

  • (1) an allergic reaction
  • (2) an antigen-antibody reaction
  • (3) maintenance of homeostasis
  • (4) autotrophic nutrition
Answer: (3) maintenance of homeostasis

24. Which concept is best represented in the diagram shown below?

Living Environment August 2008
  • (1) Human actions are a threat to equilibrium in ecosystems.
  • (2) Equilibrium in ecosystems requires that humans modify ecosystems.
  • (3) Equilibrium in ecosystems directly affects how humans modify ecosystems.
  • (4) Human population growth is the primary reason for equilibrium in ecosystems.
Answer: (1) Human actions are a threat to equilibrium in ecosystems. 

25. One possible reason for the rise in the average air temperature at Earth’s surface is that

  • (1) decomposers are being destroyed
  • (2) deforestation has increased the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere
  • (3) industrialization has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the air
  • (4) growing crops is depleting the ozone shield
Answer: (3) industrialization has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the air

26. The size of a frog population in a pond remains fairly constant over a period of several years because of

  • (1) decreasing competition
  • (2) environmental carrying capacity
  • (3) excessive dissolved oxygen
  • (4) the depth of water
Answer: (2) environmental carrying capacity

27. Plants such as the Venus flytrap produce chemical compounds that break down insects into substances that are usable by the plant. The chemical compounds that break down the insects are most likely

  • (1) fats
  • (2) minerals
  • (3) biological catalysts
  • (4) complex carbohydrates
Answer: (3) biological catalysts

28. In December 2004, a tsunami (giant wave) destroyed many of the marine organisms along the coast of the Indian Ocean. What can be expected to happen to the ecosystem that was most severely hit by the tsunami?

  • (1) The ecosystem will change until a new stable community is established.
  • (2) Succession will continue in the ecosystem until one species of marine organism is established.
  • (3) Ecological succession will no longer occur in this marine ecosystem.
  • (4) The organisms in the ecosystem will become extinct.
Answer: (1) The ecosystem will change until a new stable community is established. 

29. Many homeowners who used to collect, bag, and discard grass clippings are now using mulching lawnmowers, which cut up the clippings into very fine pieces and deposit them on the soil. The use of mulching lawnmowers contributes most directly to

  • (1) increasing the diversity of life
  • (2) recycling of nutrients
  • (3) the control of pathogens
  • (4) the production of new species
Answer: (2) recycling of nutrients

30. Deforestation of areas considered to be rich sources of genetic material could limit future agricultural and medical advances due to

  • (1) the improved quality of the atmosphere
  • (2) the maintenance of dynamic equilibrium
  • (3) an increase in the rate of evolutionary change
  • (4) the loss of biodiversity
Answer: (4) the loss of biodiversity

 

Living Environment August 2008 Questions Answers Keys

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