Living Environment August 2006

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Wednesday, August 16, 2006 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The levels of organization for structure and function in the human body from least complex to most complex are

  • (1) systems → organs → tissues → cells
  • (2) cells → organs → tissues → systems
  • (3) tissues → systems → cells → organs
  • (4) cells → tissues → organs → systems
Answer: (4) cells → tissues → organs → systems

2. Genes are inherited, but their expressions can be modified by the environment. This statement explains why

  • (1) some animals have dark fur only when the temperature is within a certain range
  • (2) offspring produced by means of sexual reproduction look exactly like their parents
  • (3) identical twins who grow up in different homes have the same characteristics
  • (4) animals can be cloned, but plants cannot
Answer: (1) some animals have dark fur only when the temperature is within a certain range

3. Meat tenderizer contains an enzyme that interacts with meat. If meat is coated with tenderizer and then placed in a refrigerator for a short time, how would the enzyme be affected?

  • (1) It would be broken down.
  • (2) Its activity would slow down.
  • (3) Its shape would change.
  • (4) It would no longer act as an enzyme.
Answer: (2) Its activity would slow down.

4. Which row in the chart below contains correct information concerning synthesis?

Living Environment August 2006
Answer: (3) amino acids 

5. Molecule X moves across a cell membrane by diffusion. Which row in the chart below best indicates the relationship between the relative concentrations of molecule X and the use of ATP for diffusion?

Living Environment August 2006
Answer: (2) high concentration → low concentration 

6. Which statement best compares a multicellular organism to a single-celled organism?

  • (1) A multicellular organism has organ systems that interact to carry out life functions, while a single-celled organism carries out life functions without using organ systems.
  • (2) A single-celled organism carries out fewer life functions than each cell of a multicellular organism.
  • (3) A multicellular organism always obtains energy through a process that is different from that used by a single-celled organism.
  • (4) The cell of a single-celled organism is always much larger than an individual cell of a multicellular organism.
Answer: (1) A multicellular organism has organ systems that interact to carry out life functions, while a single-celled organism carries out life functions without using organ systems. 

7. Which statement indicates that different parts of the genetic information are used in different kinds of cells, even in the same organism?

  • (1) The cells produced by a zygote usually have different genes.
  • (2) As an embryo develops, various tissues and organs are produced.
  • (3) Replicated chromosomes separate during gamete formation.
  • (4) Offspring have a combination of genes from both parents.
Answer: (2) As an embryo develops, various tissues and organs are produced. 

8. Three structures are represented in the diagram below.

Living Environment August 2006

What is the relationship between these three structures?

  • (1) DNA is made up of proteins that are synthesized in the cell.
  • (2) Protein is composed of DNA that is stored in the cell.
  • (3) DNA controls the production of protein in the cell.
  • (4) The cell is composed only of DNA and protein.
Answer: (3) DNA controls the production of protein in the cell. 

9. In a group of mushrooms exposed to a poisonous chemical, only a few of the mushrooms survived. The best explanation for the resistance of the surviving mushrooms is that the resistance

  • (1) was transmitted to the mushrooms from the poisonous chemical
  • (2) resulted from the presence of mutations in the mushrooms
  • (3) was transferred through the food web to the mushrooms
  • (4) developed in response to the poisonous chemical
Answer: (2) resulted from the presence of mutations in the mushrooms

10. Which statement correctly describes the genetic makeup of the sperm cells produced by a human male?

  • (1) Each cell has pairs of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically identical.
  • (2) Each cell has pairs of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically different.
  • (3) Each cell has half the normal number of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically identical.
  • (4) Each cell has half the normal number of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically different.
Answer: (4) Each cell has half the normal number of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically different.

11. In an environment that undergoes frequent change, species that reproduce sexually may have an advantage over species that reproduce asexually because the sexually reproducing species produce

  • (1) more offspring in each generation
  • (2) identical offspring
  • (3) offspring with more variety
  • (4) new species of offspring in each generation
Answer: (3) offspring with more variety

12. Mutations that occur in skin or lung cells have little effect on the evolution of a species because mutations in these cells

  • (1) usually lead to the death of the organism
  • (2) cannot be passed on to offspring
  • (3) are usually beneficial to the organism
  • (4) lead to more serious mutations in offspring
Answer: (2) cannot be passed on to offspring

13. The teeth of carnivores are pointed and are good for puncturing and ripping flesh. The teeth of herbivores are flat and are good for grinding and chewing. Which statement best explains these observations?

  • (1) Herbivores have evolved from carnivores.
  • (2) Carnivores have evolved from herbivores.
  • (3) The two types of teeth most likely evolved as a result of natural selection.
  • (4) The two types of teeth most likely evolved as a result of the needs of an organism.
Answer: (3) The two types of teeth most likely evolved as a result of natural selection.

14. What would most likely happen if most of the bacteria and fungi were removed from an ecosystem?

  • (1) Nutrients resulting from decomposition would be reduced.
  • (2) Energy provided for autotrophic nutrition would be reduced.
  • (3) The rate of mutations in plants would increase.
  • (4) Soil fertility would increase.
Answer: (1) Nutrients resulting from decomposition would be reduced.

15. A certain bacterial colony originated from the division of a single bacterial cell. Each cell in this colony will most likely

  • (1) express adaptations unlike those of the other cells
  • (2) replicate different numbers of genes
  • (3) have a resistance to different antibiotics
  • (4) synthesize the same proteins and enzymes
Answer: (4) synthesize the same proteins and enzymes 

16. Removal of one ovary from a human female would most likely

  • (1) affect the production of eggs
  • (2) make fertilization impossible
  • (3) make carrying a fetus impossible
  • (4) decrease her ability to provide essential nutrients to an embryo
Answer: (1) affect the production of eggs

17. Which substance usually passes in the greatest amount through the placenta from the blood of the fetus to the blood of the mother?

  • (1) oxygen
  • (2) carbon dioxide
  • (3) amino acids
  • (4) glucose
Answer: (2) carbon dioxide

18. An enzyme known as rubisco enables plants to use large amounts of carbon dioxide. This enzyme is most likely active in the

  • (1) nucleus
  • (2) vacuoles
  • (3) mitochondria
  • (4) chloroplasts
Answer: (4) chloroplasts

19. Starch molecules present in a maple tree are made from materials that originally entered the tree from the external environment as

  • (1) enzymes
  • (2) simple sugars
  • (3) amino acids
  • (4) inorganic compounds
Answer: (4) inorganic compounds

20. Which change in a sample of pond water could indicate that heterotrophic microbes were active?

  • (1) increase in ozone level
  • (2) increase in glucose level
  • (3) decrease in oxygen level
  • (4) decrease in carbon dioxide level
Answer: (3) decrease in oxygen level

21. Some human white blood cells help destroy pathogenic bacteria by

  • (1) causing mutations in the bacteria
  • (2) engulfing and digesting the bacteria
  • (3) producing toxins that compete with bacterial toxins
  • (4) inserting part of their DNA into the bacterial cells
Answer: (2) engulfing and digesting the bacteria

22. Four students each drew an illustration to show the flow of energy in a field ecosystem. Which illustration is most accurate?

Living Environment August 2006

23. As succession proceeds from a shrub community to a forest community, the shrub community modifies its environment, eventually making it

  • (1) more favorable for itself and less favorable for the forest community
  • (2) more favorable for itself and more favorable for the forest community
  • (3) less favorable for itself and more favorable for the forest community
  • (4) less favorable for itself and less favorable for the forest community
Answer: (3) less favorable for itself and more favorable for the forest community

24. The diagram below represents a series of events in the development of a bird.

Living Environment August 2006

Which series of terms best represents the sequence of processes shown?

  • (1) meiosis → growth → differentiation
  • (2) meiosis → differentiation → growth
  • (3) mitosis → meiosis → differentiation
  • (4) mitosis → differentiation → growth
Answer: (4) mitosis → differentiation → growth

25. Bacteria that are removed from the human intestine are genetically engineered to feed on organic pollutants in the environment and convert them into harmless inorganic compounds. Which row in the table below best represents the most likely negative and positive effects of this technology on the ecosystem?

Living Environment August 2006
Answer: (2) 

26. An energy pyramid is represented below.

Living Environment August 2006

How much energy would be available to the organisms in level C?

  • (1) all of the energy in level A, plus the energy in level B
  • (2) all of the energy in level A, minus the energy in level B
  • (3) a percentage of the energy contained in level B
  • (4) a percentage of the energy synthesized in level B and level D
Answer: (3) a percentage of the energy contained in level B

27. Which graph illustrates changes that indicate a state of dynamic equilibrium in a mosquito population?Living Environment August 2006

Answer: (2) 

28. Which condition is necessary for enzymes and hormones to function properly in the human body?

  • (1) These chemicals must have a specific shape.
  • (2) These chemicals must be able to replicate.
  • (3) Body temperature must be above 40°C.
  • (4) Body pH must be above 10.
Answer: (1) These chemicals must have a specific shape.

29. Four environmental factors are listed below.

A. energy
B. water
C. oxygen
D. minerals

Which factors limit environmental carrying capacity in a land ecosystem?

  • (1) A, only
  • (2) B, C, and D, only
  • (3) A, C, and D, only
  • (4) A, B, C, and D
Answer: (4) A, B, C, and D

30. Which human activity would have the least negative impact on the quality of the environment?

  • (1) adding animal wastes to rivers
  • (2) cutting down tropical rain forests for plywood
  • (3) using species-specific sex attractants to trap and kill insect pests
  • (4) releasing chemicals into the groundwater
Answer: (3) using species-specific sex attractants to trap and kill insect pests 

 

Living Environment August 2006 Questions Answers Keys

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Living Environment January 2014Scoring Key and Rating Guide

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