Living Environment August 2003

Living Environment August 2003 Questions Answer Keys

The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Living Environment
Wednesday, August 13, 2003 — 12:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________

Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The pancreas produces one hormone that lowers blood sugar level and another that increases blood sugar level. The interaction of these two hormones most directly helps humans to

  • (1) maintain a balanced internal environment
  • (2) digest needed substances for other body organs
  • (3) dispose of wastes formed in other body organs
  • (4) increase the rate of cellular communication
Answer: (1) maintain a balanced internal environment

2. Two types of human cells are shown in the diagram below.

Living Environment August 2003

Cell A causes the cells at B to contract. This activity would be most useful for

  • (1) lifting a book from a bookshelf
  • (2) coordinating the functions of organelles
  • (3) digesting food in the small intestine
  • (4) carrying out the process of protein synthesis
Answer: (1) lifting a book from a bookshelf

3. The equation below represents a chemical reaction that occurs in humans.

Substance X + Substance Y enzyme C Substance W

What data should be collected to support the hypothesis that enzyme C works best in an environment that is slightly basic?

  • (1) the amino acid sequence of enzyme C
  • (2) the amount of substance W produced in five minutes at various pH levels
  • (3) the shapes of substances X and Y after the reaction occurs
  • (4) the temperature before the reaction occurs
Answer: (2) the amount of substance W produced in five minutes at various pH levels

4. A student hypothesized that lettuce seeds would not sprout (germinate) unless they were exposed to darkness. The student planted 10 lettuce seeds under a layer of soil and scattered 10 lettuce seeds on top of the soil. The data collected are shown in the table below.

Living Environment August 2003

One way to improve the validity of these results would be to

  • (1) conclude that darkness is necessary for lettuce seed germination
  • (2) conclude that light is necessary for lettuce seed germination
  • (3) revise the hypothesis
  • (4) repeat the experiment
Answer: (4) repeat the experiment

5. The graph below represents data obtained from an experiment on starch digestion.

Living Environment August 2003

Which statement best describes point A and point B on the graph?

  • (1) The concentration of sugars is greater at point A than it is at point B.
  • (2) The concentration of sugars is greater at point B than it is at point A.
  • (3) The starch concentration is the same at point A as it is at point B.
  • (4) The starch concentration is greater at point B than it is at point A.
Answer: (2) The concentration of sugars is greater at point B than it is at point A.

6. The diagram below provides some information concerning proteins.

Living Environment August 2003

Which phrase is represented by A?

  • (1) sequence of amino acids
  • (2) sequence of simple sugars
  • (3) sequence of starch molecules
  • (4) sequence of ATP molecules
Answer: (1) sequence of amino acids

7. In a certain ecosystem, rattlesnakes are predators of prairie dogs. If the prairie dog population started to increase, how would the ecosystem most likely regain stability?

  • (1) The rattlesnake population would start to decrease.
  • (2) The rattlesnake population would start to increase.
  • (3) The prairie dog population would increase rapidly.
  • (4) The prairie dog population would begin to prey on the rattlesnakes.
Answer: (2) The rattlesnake population would start to increase.

8. In a particular variety of corn, the kernels turn red when exposed to sunlight. In the absence of sunlight, the kernels remain yellow. Based on this information, it can be concluded that the color of these corn kernels is due to

  • (1) a different type of DNA that is produced when sunlight is present
  • (2) a different species of corn that is produced in sunlight
  • (3) the effect of sunlight on the number of chromosomes inherited
  • (4) the effect of environment on gene expression
Answer: (4) the effect of environment on gene expression

9. What determines the kind of genes an organism possesses?

  • (1) type of amino acids in the cells of the organism
  • (2) sequence of the subunits A, T, C, and G in the DNA of the organism
  • (3) size of simple sugar molecules in the organs of the organism
  • (4) shape of the protein molecules in the organelles of the organism
Answer: (2) sequence of the subunits A, T, C, and G in the DNA of the organism

10. If a set of instructions that determines all of the characteristics of an organism is compared to a book, and a chromosome is compared to a chapter in the book, then what might be compared to a paragraph in the book?

  • (1) a starch molecule
  • (2) an egg
  • (3) an amino acid
  • (4) a DNA molecule
Answer: (4) a DNA molecule

11. Research applications of the basic principles of genetics have contributed greatly to the rapid production of new varieties of plants and animals. Which activity is an example of such an application?

  • (1) testing new fertilizers on food crops
  • (2) selective breeding of plants and animals that exhibit high resistance to disease
  • (3) developing new irrigation methods to conserve water
  • (4) using natural predators to control insect pests
Answer: (2) selective breeding of plants and animals that exhibit high resistance to disease

12. People with cystic fibrosis inherit defective genetic information and cannot produce normal CFTR proteins. Scientists have used gene therapy to insert normal DNA segments that code for the missing CFTR protein into the lung cells of people with cystic fibrosis. Which statement does not describe a result of this therapy?

  • (1) Altered lung cells can produce the normal CFTR protein.
  • (2) Altered lung cells can divide to produce other lung cells with the normal CFTR gene.
  • (3) The normal CFTR gene may be expressed in altered lung cells.
  • (4) Offspring of someone with altered lung cells will inherit the normal CFTR gene.
Answer: (4) Offspring of someone with altered lung cells will inherit the normal CFTR gene.

13. Two organisms are represented below.

Living Environment August 2003

Which statement concerning organism A and organism B is correct?

  • (1) Organism A contains tissues while organism B lacks tissues.
  • (2) Organism A and organism B have the same organs.
  • (3) Organism A and organism B have structures that allow them to maintain homeostasis.
  • (4) Organism A lacks structures that maintain a dynamic equilibrium, while organism B has these structures.
Answer: (3) Organism A and organism B have structures that allow them to maintain homeostasis.

14. A portion of a molecule is shown in the diagram below.

Living Environment August 2003

Which statement best describes the main function of this type of molecule?

  • (1) It is a structural part of the cell wall.
  • (2) It stores energy for metabolic processes.
  • (3) It determines what traits may be inherited.
  • (4) It transports materials across the cell membrane.
Answer: (3) It determines what traits may be inherited. 

15. The structure that makes nutrients most directly available to a human embryo is the

  • (1) gamete
  • (2) ovary
  • (3) stomach
  • (4) placenta
Answer: (4) placenta

16. Which process is correctly matched with its explanation?

Living Environment August 2003
Answer: (1) extinction 

17. The great variety of possible gene combinations in a sexually reproducing species is due in part to the

  • (1) sorting of genes as a result of gene replication
  • (2) pairing of genes as a result of mitosis
  • (3) pairing of genes as a result of differentiation
  • (4) sorting of genes as a result of meiosis
Answer: (4) sorting of genes as a result of meiosis

18. The information below was printed on a calendar of important events in the field of biology.

1859
Darwin Publishes
On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection

This information is most closely associated with

  • (1) an explanation for the change in types of minerals in an area through ecological succession
  • (2) the reasons for the loss of biodiversity in all habitats on Earth
  • (3) an attempt to explain the structural similarities observed among diverse living organisms
  • (4) the effect of carrying capacity on the size of populations
Answer: (3) an attempt to explain the structural similarities observed among diverse living organisms

19. The Florida panther, a member of the cat family, has a population of fewer than 100 individuals and has limited genetic variation. Which inference based on this information is valid?

  • (1) These animals will begin to evolve rapidly.
  • (2) Over time, these animals will become less likely to survive in a changing environment.
  • (3) These animals are easily able to adapt to the environment.
  • (4) Over time, these animals will become more likely to be resistant to disease.
Answer: (2) Over time, these animals will become less likely to survive in a changing environment.

20. Areas with many different niches will most likely have

  • (1) large numbers of organisms that will become extinct
  • (2) no organisms that will become extinct
  • (3) little diversity among the organisms
  • (4) great diversity among the organisms
Answer: (4) great diversity among the organisms

21. From a single monkey, an animal breeder claims that he has successfully cloned two monkeys. He displays the two monkeys, a male and a female, to the public. The claim of the breeder should be rejected because the monkeys

  • (1) are twins
  • (2) have the same parents
  • (3) are of two different sexes
  • (4) developed from more than one sperm cell
Answer: (3) are of two different sexes

22. Compared to human cells resulting from mitotic cell division, human cells resulting from meiotic cell division would have

  • (1) twice as many chromosomes
  • (2) the same number of chromosomes
  • (3) one-half the number of chromosomes
  • (4) one-quarter as many chromosomes
Answer: (3) one-half the number of chromosomes

23. The diagrams below represent cells that transport chromosomes.

Living Environment August 2003

These cells are specialized for

  • (1) oxygen transport
  • (2) transmitting chemical signals over long distances
  • (3) sexual reproduction
  • (4) injecting antibodies into harmful bacteria
Answer: (3) sexual reproduction

24. Living organisms must be able to obtain materials, change the materials into new forms, remove poisons, and move needed material from one place to another. Many of these activities directly require

  • (1) energy released from ATP
  • (2) carbohydrates formed from receptor molecules
  • (3) the synthesis of DNA
  • (4) the breakdown of energy-rich inorganic molecules
Answer: (1) energy released from ATP

25. A colony of bacteria growing on a culture medium is successfully synthesizing an organic compound. Which procedure would be least likely to have an effect on this synthesis?

  • (1) adding more subunits of the organic compound to the medium
  • (2) lowering the pH of the medium
  • (3) raising the temperature of the colony from 20°C to 30°C
  • (4) increasing the number of hormone molecules in the colony
Answer: (4) increasing the number of hormone molecules in the colony

26. Which process is directly used by autotrophs to store energy in glucose?

  • (1) diffusion
  • (2) photosynthesis
  • (3) respiration
  • (4) active transport
Answer: (2) photosynthesis

27. The ozone layer of Earth’s atmosphere helps to filter ultraviolet radiation. As the ozone layer is depleted, more ultraviolet radiation reaches Earth’s surface. This increase in ultraviolet radiation may be harmful because it can directly cause

  • (1) photosynthesis to stop in all marine organisms
  • (2) abnormal migration patterns in waterfowl
  • (3) mutations in the DNA of organisms
  • (4) sterility in most species of mammals and birds
Answer: (3) mutations in the DNA of organisms

28. In an ecosystem, nutrients would be recycled if they were transferred directly from herbivores to carnivores to

  • (1) hosts
  • (2) prey
  • (3) decomposers
  • (4) autotrophs
Answer: (3) decomposers

29. The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body

Living Environment August 2003

The structures that are part of the immune system are represented by

  • (1) A, only
  • (2) A and C, only
  • (3) B and C, only
  • (4) A, B, and C
Answer: (2) A and C, only

30. Which statement concerning the producers in the ocean ecosystem shown below is correct?

  • (1) An increase in the types of producers will most likely decrease the available energy for the squid.
  • (2) A producer in this ecosystem is the zooplankton.
  • (3) If all the producers in this ecosystem are destroyed, the number of heterotrophs will increase, but the ecosystem will reach a new equilibrium.
  • (4) Since there is only one group of producers, their numbers must be large enough to supply the energy for the rest of the food web.
Answer: (4) Since there is only one group of producers, their numbers must be large enough to supply the energy for the rest of the food web.

Living Environment August 2003 Questions Answers Keys

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