Living Environment 13 June 2018 Questions Answer Keys
The University of the State of New York
Regents High School Examination
Wednesday, June 13, 2018 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only
Student Name _____________________________________________________________
School Name ______________________________________________________________
Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Producers are generally found at the beginning of a food chain. Which statement best explains why this is true?
- (1) Producers are usually smaller in size than consumers.
- (2) Producers do not rely on other organisms for food.
- (3) There are always more consumers than producers in food chains.
- (4) Consumers are always more complex organisms than producers.
2. A lion cub resembles its parents because it inherits genes that produce
- (1) DNA identical to all of the DNA found in both parents
- (2) proteins identical to all of the proteins found in both parents
- (3) ATP identical to some of the ATP found in each parent
- (4) enzymes identical to some of the enzymes found in each parent
3. If body temperature is too high, some blood vessels increase in size and sweat glands will excrete sweat, resulting in a lower body temperature. These changes are an example of
- (1) a learned behavior
- (2) feedback mechanisms
- (3) an inherited disorder
- (4) genetic mutations
4. A farmer grows beans that he sells to local markets. Over a period of 40 years, the farmer has identifi ed the plants that produced the most beans and only used those beans to produce new plants. This procedure is part of the process of
- (1) selective breeding
- (2) genetic engineering
- (3) replication
- (4) cloning
5. Although we rely on coal, oil, and natural gas to produce energy, some environmental scientists have proposed that we use less fossil fuel. One reason to support this proposal is to
- (1) enable us to preserve rain forests in tropical areas
- (2) help us to reduce the production of carbon dioxide gas
- (3) allow us to decrease the use of fertilizers on crops
- (4) encourage us to end research on wind and water power sources
6. The diagram below represents relationships in an ecosystem.
What is the primary source of energy in this environment?
- (1) cellular respiration in the plants
- (2) energy from minerals in the soil
- (3) fossil fuels
- (4) solar energy
7. Research has shown that treadmill training increases the number of certain energy-releasing structures in the brain cells of rats.
The cellular structures referred to in this study are most likely
- (1) mitochondria
- (2) nuclei
- (3) vacuoles
- (4) ribosomes
8. Which process must first take place in order for the proteins in foods to be used by body cells?
- (1) digestion
- (2) storage
- (3) synthesis
- (4) excretion
9. Which statement is characteristic of reproduction in humans?
- (1) The reproductive cells of males and females differ in chromosome number.
- (2) Males and females produce gametes in the ovaries.
- (3) Males and females produce the same number of gametes.
- (4) The reproductive cycles of males and females are regulated by hormones.
10. Which row in the chart below represents the most likely changes in the atmosphere due to widespread deforestation?
11. The chart below represents some of the events that occur during the cycling of nutrients in an ecosystem.
Which organisms would most appropriately complete the chart when written in the circle at X?
- (1) producers
- (2) herbivores
- (3) carnivores
- (4) decomposers
12. The diagram below represents the formation of a cancerous growth.
Which statement best explains the events represented in this diagram?
- (1) A gene mutation caused the cells to become muscle cells.
- (2) The growth resulted from the introduction of a vaccine.
- (3) A gene mutation caused abnormal mitotic cell division.
- (4) The growth resulted from uncontrolled meiotic cell division.
13. A standard laboratory technique used to produce a new plant is represented in the diagram below.
This technique is best identifi ed as
- (1) gene alteration
- (2) selective breeding
- (3) replication
- (4) cloning
14. An example of competition between members of two different species is
- (1) mold growing on a dead tree that has fallen in the forest
- (2) purple loosestrife plants growing in the same wet areas as cattail plants
- (3) a coyote feeding on the remains of a deer that died of starvation
- (4) two male turkeys displaying mating behaviors to attract a female turkey
15. Which statement best explains why different body cells of the same individual look and function differently?
- (1) Each cell contains different genes.
- (2) Different genes are activated in different kinds of cells.
- (3) Cells are able to change to adapt to their surroundings.
- (4) Half of the genes in the cells came from the mother and half from the father.
16. A diagram of the female reproductive system is shown below.
Identify the structure within which the egg cell is normally fertilized.
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
17. The ameba, a single-celled organism, reproduces asexually. Variations in an ameba would most commonly occur through
- (1) differentiation during development
- (2) the fusion of gametes
- (3) random mutations
- (4) recombination during fertilization
18. The development of organs and tissues from a zygote includes
- (1) mitosis and differentiation
- (2) mitosis and gamete production
- (3) meiosis and gamete production
- (4) meiosis and fertilization
19. In the 1920s, over 25 million acres of the American southern plains were stripped of prairie grasses to provide more land for farmers to grow wheat. The prairie grasses had served to hold the soil in place and prevent erosion. In the early 1930s, a series of severe dust storms eroded topsoil from more than 13 million acres of the southern plains and dumped it as tons of dust particles over many cities in the Northeast. Farmland was destroyed and people were sickened from “dust pneumonia.” This occurrence illustrates that
- (1) farmers should never clear land to grow crops as it always creates problems
- (2) once an ecosystem has been altered, it can not be restored to normal
- (3) the farmers deliberately altered the equilibrium of the cities in the Northeast
- (4) when humans alter ecosystems, serious consequences may result
20. The Cornell University News Service reported, “The sugar maple is the most economically valuable tree in the eastern United States because of its high-priced lumber, syrup and tourist-attracting fall colors.” The effects of acid rain now threaten the survival of these trees. This threat is the result of a human activity that has
- (1) introduced a foreign species by accident
- (2) stabilized a forest ecosystem through technology
- (3) weakened an ecosystem through pollution
- (4) weakened a species by direct harvesting
21. The human male reproductive system is adapted for the production of
- (1) sperm and the delivery of these cells for internal fertilization
- (2) gametes that transport food to the egg
- (3) zygotes and the development of these cells into a fetus
- (4) hormones that stimulate placenta formation in the male
22. The diagram below represents an important biological technique scientists rely on to produce replacement hormones.
Which two processes are required for the technique to successfully produce hormones?
- (1) replication of DNA in bacterial cells and cell division
- (2) replication of DNA in bacterial cells and gamete formation
- (3) meiosis and development
- (4) mitosis and fertilization
23. The diagram below summarizes some of the steps in the development of humans.
All the genetic information needed for the organism to develop is first present at
- (1) A
- (2) B
- (3) C
- (4) D
24. Five different living organisms are represented below.
Which statement about the organisms represented above is correct?
- (1) All of the organisms are autotrophs.
- (2) Only the flowering plant, green heron, and aquatic plant carry out photosynthesis.
- (3) Only the frog and green heron can maintain homeostasis.
- (4) All of the organisms pass on traits through reproduction.
25. Mistletoe is an evergreen shrub that can produce most of its own food. Often, mistletoe can be found living on trees and taking water and nutrients away from the tissues of the trees.
The relationship between mistletoe and trees is an example of
- (1) consumer/herbivore
- (2) predator/prey
- (3) scavenger/decomposer
- (4) parasite/host
26. Rabbits are not native to Australia. They were imported by European settlers. In 1936, the myxoma virus was introduced into Australia as a means of biological control to infect and reduce the rabbit population. This method of controlling the rabbit population was an attempt to
- (1) stop the overpopulation of a native species
- (2) stop the overproduction of an introduced species
- (3) limit the food sources of the rabbit
- (4) limit the number of rabbits brought into the country
27. The major role of carbohydrates in the human diet is to
- (1) form the membranes that surround mitochondria
- (2) act as a catalyst for cellular reactions
- (3) supply energy for the body
- (4) provide building blocks for amino acids
28. Throughout New York State, some farmers have switched from growing a variety of vegetable crops to growing a single crop, such as corn. Other farmers are concerned that such a practice will make it more likely that an entire crop could be lost to disease or infestation by an insect pest. This is a valid concern because this practice
- (1) reduces the biodiversity of their fields
- (2) increases the number of decomposers in their fields
- (3) decreases the need to import food
- (4) increases the number of invasive species
29. The breathing rate, heart rate, and blood hormone levels of an individual would directly provide information about that individual’s
- (1) cellular organization
- (2) nutrition
- (3) inheritance
- (4) metabolic activity
30. The diagram below represents an energy pyramid.
Which type of organism could occupy levels B, C, and D of this energy pyramid?
- (1) consumer
- (2) producer
- (3) autotroph
- (4) carnivore
Living Environment 13 June 2018 Questions Answers Keys
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