Earth Science June 2017

Earth Science June 2017 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Physical setting
Earth science
Thursday, June 15, 2017 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. Evidence that the universe is expanding is best supported by the observation that the wavelengths of light from distant galaxies are shifted toward the

  • (1) red end of the spectrum because they are shortened
  • (2) red end of the spectrum because they are lengthened
  • (3) blue end of the spectrum because they are shortened
  • (4) blue end of the spectrum because they are lengthened
Answer: (2) red end of the spectrum because they are lengthened 

2. Scientists infer that the Big Bang occurred approximately

  • (1) 4.6 billion years ago
  • (2) 7 billion years ago
  • (3) 9 billion years ago
  • (4) 13.8 billion years ago
Answer: (4) 13.8 billion years ago 

3. Which process produces the largest amount of energy given off by stars?

  • (1) nuclear fusion of lighter elements into heavier elements
  • (2) nuclear fusion of heavier elements into lighter elements
  • (3) radioactive decay of lighter elements into heavier elements
  • (4) radioactive decay of heavier elements into lighter elements
Answer: (1) nuclear fusion of lighter elements into heavier elements 

4. Which two factors caused the interior layering of Earth and other planets in our solar system during their formation?

  • (1) cosmic background radiation and density differences
  • (2) cosmic background radiation and specific heat
  • (3) gravity and density differences
  • (4) gravity and specific heat
Answer: (3) gravity and density differences 

5. The map below shows the location of the Chicxulub impact crater, which was formed in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 65.5 million years ago. With an estimated 108-mile diameter, this crater, which is now buried beneath surface crustal rocks, is one of the largest craters on Earth.

The asteroid impact that formed this large crater is theorized to have caused

  • (1) a drop in sea level from the sea water draining into the large crater
  • (2) warmer than normal worldwide ocean temperatures from the hot asteroid
  • (3) mass extinctions of many species on Earth from extreme climate changes
  • (4) an increase in worldwide greenhouse gases from vaporizing crustal rocks
Answer: (3) mass extinctions of many species on Earth from extreme climate changes 

6. The altitude of Polaris measured by an observer at the Tropic of Cancer is

  • (1) 15°
  • (2) 23.5°
  • (3) 66.5°
  • (4) 90°
Answer: (2) 23.5° 

7. During which month does the Sun rise north of due east in New York State?

  • (1) February
  • (2) July
  • (3) October
  • (4) December
Answer: (2) July 

8. The graph below shows the change in tide heights of the Hudson River at Newburgh, New York.

According to the graph, the time difference between high tide and the next low tide is approximately

  • (1) 2 hours
  • (2) 3 hours
  • (3) 6 hours
  • (4) 12 hours
Answer: (3) 6 hours 

9. During a rainstorm, water is fl owing down the side of a hill composed of solid bedrock. What will be the effect on the relative amounts of runoff and infi ltration when the water reaches an area of unsaturated soil with a gentler slope?

  • (1) Runoff will decrease as infi ltration decreases.
  • (2) Runoff will decrease as infi ltration increases.
  • (3) Runoff will increase as infi ltration decreases.
  • (4) Runoff will increase as infi ltration increases.
Answer: (2) Runoff will decrease as infi ltration increases. 

10. What is the dewpoint when the dry bulb temperature is 20°C and the relative humidity is 17%?

  • (1) –5°C
  • (2) –2°C
  • (3) 11°C
  • (4) 15°C
Answer: (1) –5°C 

11. The diagram below represents the apparent changes in the direction of swing of a Foucault pendulum.

This apparent change in direction of swing provides evidence that Earth

  • (1) has a spherical shape
  • (2) is tilted on its axis
  • (3) orbits around the Sun
  • (4) turns on its axis
Answer: (4) turns on its axis 

12. Which change in the heat energy content of water occurs when water changes phase from a liquid to a solid?

  • (1) gain of 334 Joules of heat energy per gram
  • (2) release of 334 Joules of heat energy per gram
  • (3) gain of 2260 Joules of heat energy per gram
  • (4) release of 2260 Joules of heat energy per gram
Answer: (2) release of 334 Joules of heat energy per gram 

13. What is the primary source of energy for Earth’s weather systems?

  • (1) incoming solar radiation
  • (2) subtropical jet streams
  • (3) precipitation from clouds
  • (4) heat from Earth’s interior
Answer: (1) incoming solar radiation 

14. The diagram below represents a view of Earth from above the North Pole. Points A and B represent locations on Earth’s surface.

Locations A and B have the same

  • (1) latitude and local time
  • (2) latitude and elevation
  • (3) longitude and local time
  • (4) longitude and elevation
Answer: (3) longitude and local time 

15. The diagram below shows an instrument used in weather forecasting.

This instrument measures atmospheric

  • (1) wind speed
  • (2) wind direction
  • (3) pressure
  • (4) temperature
Answer: (3) pressure 

16. The map of North America below shows the position of the polar front jet stream on January 7, 2014, and the location of Atlanta, Georgia.

Which type of air mass was most likely located over Atlanta, Georgia?

  • (1) mT
  • (2) mP
  • (3) cT
  • (4) cP
Answer: (4) cP 

17. As altitude increases in the troposphere and stratosphere, the air temperature

  • (1) decreases in the troposphere and increases in the stratosphere
  • (2) decreases in both the troposphere and stratosphere
  • (3) increases in the troposphere and decreases in the stratosphere
  • (4) increases in both the troposphere and stratosphere
Answer: (1) decreases in the troposphere and increases in the stratosphere 

18. Which factor causes the surface of Lake Ontario to cool at a slower rate than the surface of the land along the shore of the lake?

  • (1) Evaporating water releases more heat into the lake than into the land.
  • (2) Lake water has a higher specifi c heat than land.
  • (3) Water vapor cools the lake as it condenses.
  • (4) Sunlight passes through the top layers of the lake water.
Answer: (2) Lake water has a higher specifi c heat than land 

19. The map below shows location X in northern India.

Summer monsoon rains normally occur in India when

  • (1) high pressure exists near location X, pulling moisture in from the Indian Ocean
  • (2) high pressure exists near location X, pushing moisture out to the Indian Ocean
  • (3) low pressure exists near location X, pulling moisture in from the Indian Ocean
  • (4) low pressure exists near location X, pushing moisture out to the Indian Ocean
Answer: (3) low pressure exists near location X, pulling moisture in from the Indian Ocean 

20. Which gas absorbs some of the harmful insolation in Earth’s upper atmosphere before that insolation reaches Earth’s surface?

  • (1) nitrogen
  • (2) ozone
  • (3) oxygen
  • (4) hydrogen
Answer: (2) ozone 

21. Which ocean current brings warm water to the southeastern coast of Africa?

  • (1) Agulhas Current
  • (2) Benguela Current
  • (3) West Australian Current
  • (4) Equatorial Countercurrent
Answer: (1) Agulhas Current 

22. The intensity of insolation at solar noon from November 1 to February 1 in New York State will

  • (1) decrease, only
  • (2) increase, only
  • (3) decrease, then increase
  • (4) increase, then decrease
Answer: (3) decrease, then increase 

23. Most scientists infer that a major factor in the increased rate of melting of Earth’s glaciers is

  • (1) a decrease in the output of energy from the Sun
  • (2) a decrease in Earth’s atmospheric transparency
  • (3) an increase in Earth’s orbital distance from the Sun
  • (4) an increase in carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere
Answer: (4) an increase in carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere 

24. What is the approximate percentage of geologic time that humans have existed on Earth since its origin?

  • (1) less than 1%
  • (2) 1.8%
  • (3) 11.8%
  • (4) more than 25%
Answer: (1) less than 1% 

25. The photograph below shows the East African Rift Valley in Africa. Which tectonic movement of Earth’s crust is most likely responsible for this feature?

  • (1) convergence of continental crust
  • (2) convergence of oceanic crust
  • (3) divergence of continental crust
  • (4) divergence of oceanic crust
Answer: (3) divergence of continental crust 

26. Radioactive dating of fossils and rocks is possible because radioactive isotopes

  • (1) are found in all fossils and rocks
  • (2) are easily collected and measured
  • (3) disintegrate into organic substances
  • (4) disintegrate at a predictable rate
Answer: (4) disintegrate at a predictable rate 

27. The photograph below shows the bedrock structure of a limestone outcrop.

Which process is responsible for the deformation of this bedrock?

  • (1) folding
  • (2) weathering
  • (3) mass movement
  • (4) volcanic activity
Answer: (1) folding 

28. Which particles will be transported by a stream moving at a velocity of 5 cm/s?

  • (1) pebbles, sand, silt, and clay, only
  • (2) sand, silt, and clay, only
  • (3) silt and clay, only
  • (4) clay, only
Answer: (2) sand, silt, and clay, only 

29. The surface bedrock of New York State that is most likely to contain the mineral garnet can be found in an area 30 miles

  • (1) north of Binghamton
  • (2) south of Mt. Marcy
  • (3) east of Oswego
  • (4) west of Utica
Answer: (2) south of Mt. Marcy 

30. The geologic cross section below represents surface landscape features that developed in an arid climate.

A change in climate to one that is more humid would cause the

  • (1) shape of the hills to become more rounded
  • (2) elevation of the area to become higher
  • (3) porosity of the bedrock to increase
  • (4) rate of chemical weathering to decrease
Answer: (1) shape of the hills to become more rounded 

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