# Earth Science June 2014

Earth Science June 2014 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Physical setting
Earth science
Thursday, June 19, 2014 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. Which New York State city is located at 42°39′ N 73°45′ W?

• (1) Buffalo
• (2) Albany
• (3) Ithaca
• (4) Plattsburgh

2. Positions 1, 2, and 3 in the diagram below represent the noon Sun above the horizon on three different days during the year, as viewed from Binghamton, New York.

At which position was the noon Sun on January 21, as viewed from Binghamton?

• (1) above position 1
• (2) below position 3
• (3) between position 1 and position 2
• (4) between position 2 and position 3
Answer: (4) between position 2 and position 3

3. Which evidence best supports the theory that the universe began with a massive explosion?

• (1) cosmic background radiation in space
• (2) parallelism of planetary axes
• (3) radioactive dating of Earth’s bedrock
• (4) life cycle of stars

4. The diagram below represents the apparent path of the Sun as seen by an observer at 65° N on March 21.

The Sun’s position shown in the diagram was observed closest to which time of day?

• (1) 9 a.m.
• (2) 11 a.m.
• (3) 3 p.m.
• (4) 6 p.m.

5. Which statement best describes Earth’s approximate rates of rotation and revolution?

• (1) Earth’s rotation rate is 15°/hour and its revolution rate is 1°/day.
• (2) Earth’s rotation rate is 1°/hour and its revolution rate is 15°/day.
• (3) Earth’s rotation rate is 24°/hour and its revolution rate is 360°/day.
• (4) Earth’s rotation rate is 360°/hour and its revolution rate is 24°/day.
Answer: (1) Earth’s rotation rate is 15°/hour and its revolution rate is 1°/day.

6. The accumulation of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen in Earth’s early atmosphere approximately 4 billion years ago resulted mainly from

• (1) outgassing from Earth’s interior
• (3) photosynthesis by the earliest land plants
• (4) convection currents in Earth’s outer core
Answer: (1) outgassing from Earth’s interior

7. Fossils of which type of animal would most likely be found in the surface bedrock of the Catskills?

• (1) reptiles
• (2) brachiopods
• (3) mammals
• (4) birds

8. Which geologic event occurred in New York State at approximately the same time as the extinction of dinosaurs and ammonoids?

• (1) formation of the Queenston Delta
• (2) deposition of the sands and clays underlying Long Island
• (3) initial opening of the Atlantic Ocean
• (4) advance and retreat of the last continental ice sheet
Answer: (2) deposition of the sands and clays underlying Long Island

9. The impacts of large asteroids on Earth are inferred to be associated with

• (1) free oxygen entering Earth’s atmosphere
• (3) the creation of subduction zones
• (4) global climatic changes

10. Volcanic ash deposits found in the geologic record are most useful in correlating the age of rock layers if the volcanic ash was distributed over a

• (1) large area during a short period of time
• (2) large area during a long period of time
• (3) small area during a short period of time
• (4) small area during a long period of time
Answer: (1) large area during a short period of time

11. A fossil formed 11,400 years ago. Which percentage of the original amount of carbon-14 remains in the fossil?

• (1) 100%
• (2) 50%
• (3) 25%
• (4) 12.5%

12. A psychrometer is used to determine which weather variables?

• (1) wind speed and wind direction
• (2) percentage of cloud cover and cloud height
• (3) air pressure and air temperature
• (4) relative humidity and dewpoint
Answer: (4) relative humidity and dewpoint

13. In the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds around the center of a hurricane move

• (1) clockwise and inward
• (2) clockwise and outward
• (3) counterclockwise and inward
• (4) counterclockwise and outward

14. Equal areas of which surface will absorb the most insolation?

• (1) partially melted snowfield
• (2) blacktop parking lot
• (3) white sand beach
• (4) lake surface

15. A city located on the coast of North America has warmer winters and cooler summers than a city at the same elevation and latitude located near the center of North America. Which statement best explains the difference between the cities’ climates?

• (1) Ocean surfaces change temperature more slowly than land surfaces.
• (2) Warm, moist air rises when it meets cool, dry air.
• (3) Wind speeds are usually greater over land surfaces than over ocean surfaces.
• (4) Ocean surfaces have a lower specific heat than land surfaces.
Answer: (1) Ocean surfaces change temperature more slowly than land surfaces.

16. Dry areas caused by sinking air and diverging surface winds are located at which two latitudes?

• (1) 0° and 30° N
• (2) 0° and 60° S
• (3) 30° N and 30° S
• (4) 60° N and 60° S
Answer: (3) 30° N and 30° S

17. Which event is inferred by most scientists to be responsible for a climate change that has recently led to a decrease in the size of most glaciers?

• (1) a decrease in the rate of divergence of lithospheric plates along a mid-ocean ridge
• (2) a decrease in the amount of insolation reaching Earth’s surface
• (3) an increase in the amount of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere
• (4) an increase in the amount of vegetative cover in the tropics
Answer: (3) an increase in the amount of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere

18. The map below shows California and a section of the San Andreas Fault.

What is the primary geologic process occurring along the San Andreas Fault?

• (1) transform movement
• (3) subduction
• (4) convergence

19. Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is usually

• (1) thicker, with a less dense granitic composition
• (2) thicker, with a more dense basaltic composition
• (3) thinner, with a less dense granitic composition
• (4) thinner, with a more dense basaltic composition
Answer: (1) thicker, with a less dense granitic composition

20. Which mantle hot spot is located directly below a mid-ocean ridge plate boundary?

• (1) Yellowstone
• (2) Iceland
• (3) Canary Islands
• (4) Hawaii

21. The block diagram below represents caves that developed in a region over time.

Which type of weathering was primarily responsible for the development of these caves?

• (1) physical weathering of sandstone
• (2) physical weathering of limestone
• (3) chemical weathering of sandstone
• (4) chemical weathering of limestone
Answer: (4) chemical weathering of limestone

22. Which agent of erosion is most likely responsible for the deposition of sandbars along ocean shorelines?

• (1) glaciers
• (2) mass movement
• (3) wave action
• (4) wind action

23. The block diagram below represents the drainage basins of some river systems separated by highland divides, shown with dashed lines. The arrows show the directions of surface-water flow.

The three areas separated by highland divides are called

• (1) meanders
• (2) floodplains
• (3) watersheds
• (4) tributaries

24. Which New York State landscape region is mostly composed of horizontal sedimentary bedrock at high elevations?

• (1) Hudson Highlands
• (2) Allegheny Plateau
• (3) Taconic Mountains
• (4) Atlantic Coastal Plain

25. Which characteristic do samples of the mineral pyroxene normally exhibit?

• (1) yellow to amber color
• (2) bubbling in hydrochloric acid
• (3) cleaves at 56° and 124°
• (4) hardness of 5 to 6
Answer: (4) hardness of 5 to 6

26. The photograph below shows the texture of a rock composed of various minerals as seen through a microscope.

Which rock is most likely shown above?

• (1) sandstone
• (2) anthracite coal
• (3) dunite
• (4) schist

27. Which minerals contain the two most abundant elements by mass in Earth’s crust?

• (1) fluorite and calcite
• (2) magnetite and pyrite
• (3) amphibole and quartz
• (4) galena and sulfur

28. The photograph below shows an outcrop where a light-colored, igneous rock is cross cut by a dark-colored, igneous rock.

This fine-grained, dark-colored, igneous rock is most likely

• (1) rhyolite
• (2) diorite
• (3) basalt
• (4) gabbro

29. The diagram below represents positions of Earth in its orbit around the Sun and twelve constellations that can be seen in the midnight sky by an observer in New York State at different times of the year. The approximate locations of the constellations in relation to Earth’s orbit are shown.

Which date is correctly paired with two constellations that can be seen in the sky at midnight?

• (1) May 21: Scorpius and Taurus
• (2) August 21: Libra and Virgo
• (3) November 21: Gemini and Capricorn
• (4) February 21: Leo and Cancer
Answer: (4) February 21: Leo and Cancer

30. The cross section of the bedrock layers of a canyon is represented below. Letters A and B represent rock layers on the sides of the canyon.

Layer A can best be correlated to layer B by comparing the

• (1) sediments on each side of the stream
• (2) sequence of rock layers on each side of the canyon
• (3) organisms currently living in rock layers A and B
• (4) rate of erosion of rock layers A and B by the stream
Answer: (2) sequence of rock layers on each side of the canyon