Earth Science June 2013

Earth Science June 2013 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Physical setting
Earth science
Friday, June 14, 2013 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. The terrestrial planets differ from the Jovian planets because the terrestrial planets are

  • (1) less dense and larger
  • (2) less dense and smaller
  • (3) more dense and larger
  • (4) more dense and smaller
Answer: (4) more dense and smaller 

2. Energy is produced within a star’s core by the process of

  • (1) insolation
  • (2) conduction
  • (3) nuclear fusion
  • (4) radioactive decay
Answer: (3) nuclear fusion 

3. The graph below shows the tidal changes in ocean water level, in meters, recorded at a  coastal location on a certain day.

Approximately how many hours apart were the two high tides?

  • (1) 6 h
  • (2) 12 h
  • (3) 18 h
  • (4) 24 h
Answer: (1) 12 h 

4. Ocean tides observed at coastal locations each day are primarily caused by

  • (1) Earth’s revolution around the Sun
  • (2) the changing phases of the Moon
  • (3) the gravitational attraction between the Moon and Earth
  • (4) seasonal changes in the compass location of sunrise
Answer: (3) The gravitational attraction between the Moon and Earth 

5. If Earth’s rate of rotation increases, the length of one Earth day will be

  • (1) shorter than 24 hours
  • (2) longer than 24 hours
  • (3) 24 hours, with a shorter nighttime period
  • (4) 24 hours, with a longer nighttime period
Answer: (1) shorter than 24 hours 

6. Which hot spot location on Earth’s surface usually receives the greatest intensity of insolation on June 21?

  • (1) Iceland
  • (2) Hawaii
  • (3) Easter Island
  • (4) Yellowstone
Answer: (2) Hawaii 

7. Compared to the luminosity and surface temperature of red main sequence stars, blue supergiants are

  • (1) less luminous and have a lower surface temperature
  • (2) less luminous and have a higher surface temperature
  • (3) more luminous and have a lower surface temperature
  • (4) more luminous and have a higher surface temperature
Answer: (4) more luminous and have a higher surface temperature 

8. The station model below shows several weather variables recorded at a particular location.

What was the most likely dewpoint at this location?

  • (1) 32°F
  • (2) 40°F
  • (3) 61°F
  • (4) 70°F
Answer: (3) 61°F

9. Which ocean current warms the climate of northwestern Europe?

  • (1) North Atlantic Current
  • (2) Canary Current
  • (3) North Equatorial Current
  • (4) Labrador Current
Answer: (1) North Atlantic Current 

10. What is the usual surface wind pattern within a Northern Hemisphere low-pressure system?

  • (1) clockwise and outward
  • (2) clockwise and inward
  • (3) counterclockwise and outward
  • (4) counterclockwise and inward
Answer: (4) counterclockwise and inward 

11. The diagram below represents Earth in space on the first day of a season.

Which season is beginning in New York State on the day represented in the diagram?

  • (1) winter
  • (2) spring
  • (3) summer
  • (4) fall
Answer: (1) winter 

12. Monsoons develop as a result of

  • (1) large changes between the temperatures of a continent and neighboring oceans
  • (2) a continent and neighboring oceans having nearly the same temperatures
  • (3) air rising over Earth’s equatorial region
  • (4) air sinking over Earth’s polar regions
Answer: (1) large changes between the temperatures of a continent and neighboring oceans 

13. At what approximate altitude in the atmosphere can stratospheric ozone be found?

  • (1) 10 km
  • (2) 30 km
  • (3) 70 km
  • (4) 100 km
Answer: (2) 30 km 

14. What percentage of Earth’s history represents human existence?

  • (1) less than 1.0%
  • (2) 1.8%
  • (3) 23.5%
  • (4) more than 98.6%
Answer: (1) less than 1.0% 

15. During which period in geologic history did the uplifting of the Adirondack Mountains begin?

  • (1) Quaternary
  • (2) Cretaceous
  • (3) Triassic
  • (4) Cambrian
Answer: (2) Cretaceous 

16. Which New York State location has surface bedrock that has been subjected to very intense regional metamorphism?

  • (1) 41°00′ N 72°15′ W
  • (2) 42°30′ N 75°00′ W
  • (3) 44°00′ N 76°00′ W
  • (4) 44°30′ N 74°00′ W
Answer: (4) 44°30′ N 74°00′ W 

17. The cross sections below represent three widely separated bedrock outcrops labeled A, B, and C. Letters W, X, Y, and Z represent fossils found in the rock layers.

Which fossil could best be used as an index fossil?

  • (1) W
  • (2) X
  • (3) Y
  • (4) Z
Answer: (1) W 

18. Which scientific principle states that younger rock layers are generally deposited on top of older rock layers?

  • (1) superposition
  • (2) evolution
  • (3) original horizontality
  • (4) inclusion
Answer: (1) superposition 

19. The graph below shows the hardness of four minerals.

Which mineral is hard enough to scratch calcite but is not hard enough to scratch amphibole?

  • (1) muscovite mica
  • (2) fluorite
  • (3) olivine
  • (4) graphite
Answer: (2) fluorite 

20. Earth’s internal heat is the primary source of energy that

  • (1) warms the lower troposphere
  • (2) melts glacial ice at lower altitudes
  • (3) moves the lithospheric plates
  • (4) pollutes deep groundwater with radioactivity
Answer: (3) moves the lithospheric plates 

21. The cross section of Earth below represents a P-wave moving away from an earthquake epicenter. Seismic station A is shown on Earth’s surface.

At station A, the first P-wave arrives 11 minutes 40 seconds after the earthquake. How long after the first P-wave arrives will the first S-wave arrive?

  • (1) 5 minutes 00 second
  • (2) 8 minutes 40 seconds
  • (3) 9 minutes 40 seconds
  • (4) 21 minutes 20 seconds
Answer: (3) 9 minutes 40 seconds 

22. The Aleutian Islands extend westward from southern Alaska to form the northern boundary of the Pacific Ocean. These volcanic islands were formed by the nearby

  • (1) subduction of a continental plate
  • (2) subduction of an oceanic plate
  • (3) divergence of a continental plate
  • (4) divergence of an oceanic plate
Answer: (2) subduction of an oceanic plate 

23. Landscapes characterized by gentle slopes and meandering streams are most often found in regions with

  • (1) steep mountain cliffs
  • (2) sediment-covered bedrock
  • (3) recently active faults and folds
  • (4) high volcanic activity
Answer: (2) sediment-covered bedrock 

24. The photograph below shows a valley.

Which agent of erosion most likely produced this valley’s shape?

  • (1) blowing wind
  • (2) ocean waves
  • (3) moving ice
  • (4) running water
Answer: (3) moving ice 

25. Pieces of bedrock material that are broken from a cliff and deposited by a landslide at the base of the cliff are best described as

  • (1) rounded and sorted
  • (2) rounded and unsorted
  • (3) angular and sorted
  • (4) angular and unsorted
Answer: (4) angular and unsorted 

26. Sandstone, limestone, and conglomerate cobbles are found in a streambed in New York State where the surrounding bedrock is composed of shales and siltstones. The most likely explanation for the presence of these cobbles is that they were

  • (1) weathered from the surrounding bedrock
  • (2) formed when shale and siltstone bedrock were eroded
  • (3) transported to this area from another region
  • (4) metamorphosed from shale and siltstone
Answer: (3) transported to this area from another region 

27. The narrow, sandy, barrier islands in the ocean along the south coast of Long Island were deposited by

  • (1) wind
  • (2) streams
  • (3) glacial ice
  • (4) wave action

Base your answers to questions 28 and 29 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows some constellations that can be seen by an observer in New York State during different seasons.

Answer: (4) wave action 

28. Which statement best explains why some constellations are not seen during all four seasons?

  • (1) Earth revolves around the Sun.
  • (2) Constellations revolve around the Sun.
  • (3) The Moon revolves around Earth.
  • (4) The Sun revolves around the center of the Milky Way.
Answer: (1) Earth revolves around the Sun. 

29. The diagram below represents a portion of the constellation Ursa Minor. The star Polaris is identified.

Ursa Minor can be seen by an observer in New York State during all four seasons because Ursa Minor is located almost directly

  • (1) above Earth’s equator
  • (2) above Earth’s North Pole
  • (3) overhead in New York State
  • (4) between Earth and the center of the Milky Way
Answer: (2) above Earth’s North Pole 

30. Which map shows normal paths followed by low-pressure storm centers as they pass across the United States?

Answer: (4)  

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