Earth Science June 2006

Earth Science June 2006 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
EARTH SCIENCE
Tuesday, June 20, 2006 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.

1. Which object is closest to Earth?

  • (1) the Sun
  • (2) Venus
  • (3) the Moon
  • (4) Mars
Answer: (3) the Moon 

2. The diagram below shows an observer on Earth measuring the altitude of Polaris.

What is the latitude of this observer?

  • (1) 90° N
  • (2) 66.5° N
  • (3) 43° N
  • (4) 23.5° N
Answer: (2) 66.5° N 

3. What is the minimum water velocity needed in a stream to maintain the transportation of the smallest boulder?

  • (1) 100 cm/sec
  • (2) 200 cm/sec
  • (3) 300 cm/sec
  • (4) 500 cm/sec
Answer: (3) 300 cm/sec 

4. Earth’s early atmosphere formed during the Early Archean Era. Which gas was generally absent from the atmosphere at that time?

  • (1) water vapor
  • (2) carbon dioxide
  • (3) nitrogen
  • (4) oxygen
Answer: (4) oxygen 

5. The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth, as viewed from space above Earth’s North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight positions in its orbit.

Spring ocean tides occur when the difference in height between high tide and low tide is greatest. At which two positions of the Moon will spring tides occur on Earth?

  • (1) 1 and 5
  • (2) 2 and 6
  • (3) 3 and 7
  • (4) 4 and 8
Answer: (1) 1 and 5  

6. Compared to other groups of stars, the group that has relatively low luminosities and relatively low temperatures is the

  • (1) Red Dwarfs
  • (2) White Dwarfs
  • (3) Red Giants
  • (4) Blue Supergiants
Answer: (1) Red Dwarfs  

7. Which sequence correctly lists the relative sizes from smallest to largest?

  • (1) our solar system, universe, Milky Way Galaxy
  • (2) our solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, universe
  • (3) Milky Way Galaxy, our solar system, universe
  • (4) Milky Way Galaxy, universe, our solar system
Answer: (2) our solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, universe 

8. The diagram below represents a swinging Foucault pendulum.

This pendulum will show an apparent change in the direction of its swing due to Earth’s

  • (1) curved surface
  • (2) tilted axis
  • (3) rotation
  • (4) revolution
Answer: (3) rotation 

9. The diagram below shows the altitude of the Sun at solar noon on March 21, as seen by an observer at 42° N latitude.

Compared to the altitude of the Sun observed at solar noon on March 21, the altitude of the Sun observed at solar noon on June 21 will be

  • (1) 15° higher in the sky
  • (2) 23.5° higher in the sky
  • (3) 42° higher in the sky
  • (4) 48° higher in the sky
Answer: (2) 23.5° higher in the sky 

10. The diagram below shows Earth’s orbit around the Sun and different positions of the Moon as it travels around Earth. Letters A through D represent four different positions of the Moon.

An eclipse of the Moon is most likely to occur when the Moon is at position

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (2) B 

11. In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds blowing from north to south are deflected, or curved, toward the west. This deflection is caused by the

  • (1) unequal heating of land and water surfaces
  • (2) movement of low-pressure weather systems
  • (3) orbiting of Earth around the Sun
  • (4) spinning of Earth on its axis
Answer: (4) spinning of Earth on its axis 

12. The table below shows air-pressure readings taken at two cities, in the same region of the United States, at noon on four different days.

The wind speed in the region between cities A and B was probably the greatest at noon on day

  • (1) 1
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 3
  • (4) 4
Answer: (3) 3 

13. If the base of a cloud is located at an altitude of 2 kilometers and the top of the cloud is located at an altitude of 8 kilometers, this cloud is located in the

  • (1) troposphere, only
  • (2) stratosphere, only
  • (3) troposphere and stratosphere
  • (4) stratosphere and mesosphere
Answer: (1) troposphere, only 

14. On a day with no wind, the air temperature outside a house is 10°C. The air temperature inside the house is 18°C. Which diagram best represents the air circulation pattern that is most likely to occur when a window of the house is first opened?

Answer: (4)  

15. Most of the Gulf Stream Ocean Current is

  • (1) warm water that flows southwestward
  • (2) warm water that flows northeastward
  • (3) cool water that flows southwestward
  • (4) cool water that flows northeastward
Answer: (2) warm water that flows northeastward 

16. Which event is the best example of erosion?

  • (1) breaking apart of shale as a result of water freezing in a crack
  • (2) dissolving of rock particles on a limestone gravestone by acid rain
  • (3) rolling of a pebble along the bottom of a stream
  • (4) crumbling of bedrock in one area to form soil
Answer: (3) rolling of a pebble along the bottom of a stream 

17. Which graph best shows the relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere and the amount of infrared radiationabsorbed by the atmosphere?

Answer: (1)  

18. The diagram below represents the direction of Earth’s rotation as it appears from above the North Pole. Point X is a location on Earth’s surface.

The time at point X is closest to

  • (1) 6 a.m.
  • (2) 12 noon
  • (3) 6 p.m.
  • (4) 12 midnight
Answer: (3) 6 p.m. 

19. Snowfall is rare at the South Pole because the air over the South Pole is usually

  • (1) rising and moist
  • (2) rising and dry
  • (3) sinking and moist
  • (4) sinking and dry
Answer: (4) sinking and dry 

20. The four streams shown on the topographic maps below have the same volume between X and Y. The distance from X to Y is also the same. All the maps are drawn to the same scale and have the same contour interval. Which map shows the stream with the greatest velocity between points X and Y?

Answer: (2)  

21. A student obtains a cup of quartz sand from a beach. A saltwater solution is poured into the sand and allowed to evaporate. The mineral residue from the saltwater solution cements the sand grains together, forming a material that is most similar in origin to

  • (1) an extrusive igneous rock
  • (2) an intrusive igneous rock
  • (3) a clastic sedimentary rock
  • (4) a foliated metamorphic rock
Answer: (3) a clastic sedimentary rock 

22. Which coastal area is most likely to experience a severe earthquake?

  • (1) east coast of North America
  • (2) east coast of Australia
  • (3) west coast of Africa
  • (4) west coast of South America
Answer: (4) west coast of South America 

23. Which characteristic is most useful in correlating Devonian-age sedimentary bedrock in New York State with Devonian-age sedimentary bedrock in other parts of the world?

  • (1) color
  • (2) index fossils
  • (3) rock types
  • (4) particle size
Answer: (2) index fossils 

24. A seismic station 4000 kilometers from the epicenter of an earthquake records the arrival time of the first P-wave at 10:00:00. At what time did the first S-wave arrive at this station?

  • (1) 9:55:00
  • (2) 10:05:40
  • (3) 10:07:05
  • (4) 10:12:40
Answer: (2) 10:05:40 

25. Which statement correctly describes the density of Earth’s mantle compared to the density of Earth’s core and crust?

  • (1) The mantle is less dense than the core but more dense than the crust.
  • (2) The mantle is less dense than both the core and the crust.
  • (3) The mantle is more dense than the core but less dense than the crust.
  • (4) The mantle is more dense than both the core and the crust.
Answer: (1) The mantle is less dense than the core but more dense than the crust. 

26. Convection currents in the plastic mantle are believed to cause divergence of lithospheric plates at the

  • (1) Peru-Chile Trench
  • (2) Mariana Trench
  • (3) Canary Islands Hot Spot
  • (4) Iceland Hot Spot
Answer: (4) Iceland Hot Spot 

27. According to fossil evidence, which sequence shows the order in which these four life-forms first appeared on Earth?

  • (1) reptiles → amphibians → insects → fish
  • (2) insects → fish → reptiles → amphibians
  • (3) amphibians → reptiles → fish → insects
  • (4) fish → insects → amphibians → reptiles
Answer: (4) fish → insects → amphibians → reptiles 

28. The fossil below was found in surface bedrock in the eastern United States.

Which statement best describes the formation of the rock containing this fossil?

  • (1) The rock was formed by the metamorphism of sedimentary rock deposited in a terrestrial environment during the Cretaceous Period.
  • (2) The rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a terrestrial environment during the Triassic Period.
  • (3) The rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a marine environment during the Cambrian Period.
  • (4) The rock was formed from the solidification of magma in a marine environment during the Triassic Period.
Answer: (3) The rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a marine environment during the Cambrian Period. 

29. The diagram below shows an index fossil found in surface bedrock in some parts of New York State.

In which New York State landscape region is this gastropod fossil most likely found in the surface bedrock?

  • (1) Tug Hill Plateau
  • (2) Allegheny Plateau
  • (3) Adirondack Mountains
  • (4) Newark Lowlands
Answer: (1) Tug Hill Plateau 

30. The topographic map below shows a hill. Points X and Y represent locations on the hill’s surface. Elevations are shown in meters

What is the gradient between points X and Y?

  • (1) 40 m/km
  • (2) 80 m/km
  • (3) 100 m/km
  • (4) 120 m/km
Answer: (1) 40 m/km 

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