Earth Science January 2018

Earth Science January 2018 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Physical setting
Earth science
Thursday, January 25, 2018 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. The defl ection of Earth’s planetary winds is an example of

  • (1) the Coriolis effect
  • (2) the Doppler effect
  • (3) convection
  • (4) gravitational pull
Answer: (1) The Coriolis effect 

2. The universe is approximately 13.8 billion years old. Compared to the age of the solar system, the age of the universe is approximately

  • (1) the same age as the solar system
  • (2) two times older than the solar system
  • (3) three times older than the solar system
  • (4) four times older than the solar system
Answer: (3) Three times older than the solar system 

3. Planets that are closest to the Sun are identifi ed as

  • (1) low-density Jovian
  • (2) low-density terrestrial
  • (3) high-density Jovian
  • (4) high-density terrestrial
Answer: (4) High-density terrestrial 

4. Which process of the water cycle occurs when water absorbs 2260 Joules of heat energy per gram?

  • (1) melting of ice
  • (2) condensation of water vapor
  • (3) evaporation of water
  • (4) freezing of water
Answer: (3) Evaporation of water 

5. In which temperature zone of Earth’s atmosphere is the polar jet stream located?

  • (1) lower thermosphere
  • (2) lower mesosphere
  • (3) upper stratosphere
  • (4) upper troposphere
Answer: (4) upper troposphere 

6. Arrows in the diagram below show three methods of energy transfer labeled A, B, and C.

Which list correctly identifi es the energy transfer processes A, B, and C?

  • (1) A–conduction
  • (2) A–convection
  • (3) A–convection B–convection B–radiation C–radiation C–conduction
  • (4) A–conduction B–conduction B–radiation C–radiation C–convection
Answer: (2) A–convection 

7. What is the relative humidity of the air when the dry-bulb temperature is 4°C and the dewpoint is 4°C?

  • (1) 42%
  • (2) 46%
  • (3) 51%
  • (4) 56%
Answer: (4) 56% 

8. The diagram below represents the light spectra given off by the same element as observed under two
different conditions. Spectrum A was observed when that element was heated in a laboratory. Spectrum B
shows the same element as seen in the light from a distant star.

The light spectrum observed from this distant star shows a

  • (1) red shift, which indicates that the star is moving away from Earth
  • (2) red shift, which indicates that the star is moving toward Earth
  • (3) blue shift, which indicates that the star is moving away from Earth
  • (4) blue shift, which indicates that the star is moving toward Earth
Answer: (1) red shift, which indicates that the star is moving away from Earth 

9. The diagrams below represent the constellations seen by an observer in New York State while looking
toward the southern horizon at midnight on July 9 and January 8.

Which motion is mainly responsible for the difference in the constellations visible at midnight on these two
dates?

  • (1) The Sun orbits Earth.
  • (2) Earth orbits the Sun.
  • (3) The stars in the constellations orbit Earth.
  • (4) Earth orbits the stars in the constellations.
Answer: (2) Earth orbits the Sun 

10. Which graph best shows the general relationship between air pressure and altitude?

Answer: (2)  

11. Most clouds form in the atmosphere when moist air

  • (1) rises, expands, and cools to the dewpoint
  • (2) rises, expands, and warms to the dewpoint
  • (3) sinks, compresses, and cools to the dewpoint
  • (4) sinks, compresses, and warms to the dewpoint
Answer: (1) rises, expands, and cools to the dewpoint 

12. Equal areas of which surface would absorb the greatest amount of insolation on a sunny day?

  • (1) light-colored, smooth surface
  • (2) light-colored, rough surface
  • (3) dark-colored, smooth surface
  • (4) dark-colored, rough surface
Answer: (4) dark-colored, rough surface 

13. Which natural event periodically weakens western surface ocean currents in the equatorial Pacifi c Ocean, resulting in a change in air temperature and precipitation patterns in the United States?

  • (1) El Nin˜ o
  • (2) transpiration
  • (3) ocean tides
  • (4) volcanic eruptions
Answer: (1) El Nin˜ o 

14. Ocean gyres in the Northern Hemisphere consist of a number of surface ocean currents that, together, generally fl ow clockwise in a roughly circular pattern. Which list contains three warm surface ocean currents that make up most of the North Atlantic Ocean gyre?

  • (1) Kuroshio Current, North Pacifi c Current, and California Current
  • (2) Canary Current, North Equatorial Current, and Equatorial Countercurrent
  • (3) Labrador Current, North Atlantic Current, and East Greenland Current
  • (4) North Equatorial Current, Gulf Stream Current, and North Atlantic Current
Answer: (4) North Equatorial Current, Gulf Stream Current, and North Atlantic Current 

15. Most of the oceanic oxygen that began to enter Earth’s atmosphere in the early Proterozoic Era was probably produced by

  • (1) formation of silicate rocks
  • (2) photosynthesis by cyanobacteria
  • (3) impact events on Earth’s surface
  • (4) outgassing from volcanoes
Answer: (2) photosynthesis by cyanobacteria 

16. During which geologic period did plants and animals fi rst appear in land environments?

  • (1) Cambrian
  • (2) Ordovician
  • (3) Silurian
  • (4) Devonian
Answer: (3) Silurian 

17. Sedimentary rock layers that were deposited between 488 million and 444 million years ago are found on the surface at which two New York State locations?

  • (1) Ithaca and Jamestown
  • (2) Utica and Syracuse
  • (3) Oswego and Old Forge
  • (4) Albany and Massena
Answer: (4) Albany and Massena 

18. A volcanic ash layer is a good geologic time marker for correlating rock layers because the ash layer was deposited over a

  • (1) limited geographic area over a short time
  • (2) limited geographic area over a long time
  • (3) wide geographic area over a short time
  • (4) wide geographic area over a long time
Answer: (3) wide geographic area over a short time 

19. The photograph below shows the results of a landslide.

This landslide is an example of

  • (1) wind abrasion
  • (2) glacial deposition
  • (3) wave action
  • (4) mass movement
Answer: (4) mass movement 

20. Which cross section correctly represents a cold front and the air-mass movements associated with this front?

Answer: (4) 

21. Earth’s interior at a depth of 3500 kilometers is believed to be

  • (1) liquid at a temperature of approximately 4900°C
  • (2) solid at a temperature of approximately 4900°C
  • (3) liquid at a temperature of approximately 5400°C
  • (4) solid at a temperature of approximately 5400°C
Answer: (3) liquid at a temperature of approximately 5400°C 

22. Compared to the density and composition of the oceanic crust, the continental crust is

  • (1) less dense and more mafic
  • (2) less dense and more felsic
  • (3) more dense and less mafic
  • (4) more dense and less felsic
Answer: (2) less dense and more felsic 

23. An earthquake occurs at 10:05 a.m. At 10:09 a.m., the fi rst P-wave from this earthquake is detected at a seismic station. Approximately how many kilometers (km) from the epicenter is this seismic station located?

  • (1) 1000 km
  • (2) 2000 km
  • (3) 2600 km
  • (4) 5600 km
Answer: (2) 2000 km 

24. The aerial photograph below shows two streams that have been displaced by tectonic movement along the San Andreas fault. The arrows show the relative direction of movement along the fault.

This movement occurred along which type of plate boundary?

  • (1) convergent
  • (2) divergent
  • (3) transform
  • (4) complex
Answer: (3) transform 

25. The magnitude of an earthquake is a number that represents the

  • (1) arrival time of the fi rst P-wave
  • (2) difference in arrival times between P- and Swaves
  • (3) distance to the epicenter
  • (4) energy released by an earthquake
Answer: (4) energy released by an earthquake 

26. The Genesee River fl ows across both the Allegheny Plateau and the Erie-Ontario Lowlands in New York State. This river fl ows

  • (1) northward, in the same general direction as the Hudson River
  • (2) northward, in the same general direction as the Niagara River
  • (3) southward, in the same general direction as the Hudson River
  • (4) southward, in the same general direction as the Niagara River
Answer: (2) northward, in the same general direction as the Niagara River 

27. What is the name of the largest sediment that can be transported by a stream moving at a velocity of 100 centimeters per second (cm/s)?

  • (1) silt
  • (2) sand
  • (3) pebbles
  • (4) cobbles
Answer: (3) pebbles 

28 Which mineral is commonly used as an abrasive?

  • (1) garnet
  • (2) halite
  • (3) sulfur
  • (4) graphite
Answer: (1) garnet 

29. If a metamorphic rock bubbles when a drop of acid is placed on its surface, the rock is most likely

  • (1) schist
  • (2) slate
  • (3) marble
  • (4) quartzite
Answer: (3) marble  

30. The map below shows a portion of the coast of Texas. Letter X indicates features formed by wave action.

What is the name of the features indicated by letter X?

  • (1) barrier islands
  • (2) island arc
  • (3) deltas
  • (4) moraines
Answer:(1) barrier islands 

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