Earth Science January 2015

Earth Science January 2015 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Physical setting
Earth science
Wednesday, January 28, 2015 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. The theory that the universe is expanding is supported by data from the

  • (1) nuclear decay of radioactive materials
  • (2) nuclear fusion of radioactive materials
  • (3) blue shift of light from distant galaxies
  • (4) red shift of light from distant galaxies
Answer: (4) red shift of light from distant galaxies 

2. The photograph below shows a feature of the universe as seen through a telescope.

This feature is best identified as

  • (1) a galaxy
  • (2) a comet
  • (3) an asteroid
  • (4) a star
Answer: (1) A galaxy 

3. Fourteen billion years represents the approximate age of

  • (1) Earth
  • (2) Earth’s Moon
  • (3) our solar system
  • (4) the universe
Answer: (4) The universe 

4. Which terms describe the motion of most objects in our solar system?

  • (1) noncyclic and unpredictable
  • (2) noncyclic and predictable
  • (3) cyclic and unpredictable
  • (4) cyclic and predictable
Answer: (4) cyclic and predictable 

5. Which planet has completed less than one orbit of the Sun in the last 100 years?

  • (1) Mars
  • (2) Mercury
  • (3) Neptune
  • (4) Uranus
Answer: (3) Neptune 

6. Compared to the size and density of Earth, the Moon has a

  • (1) smaller diameter and lower density
  • (2) smaller diameter and higher density
  • (3) larger diameter and lower density
  • (4) larger diameter and higher density
Answer: (1) smaller diameter and lower density 

7. In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds are deflected to the right due to the

  • (1) Doppler effect
  • (2) Coriolis effect
  • (3) tilt of Earth’s axis
  • (4) uneven heating of Earth’s surface
Answer: (2) Coriolis effect 

8. Which event is inferred to have contributed to the significant global climate change that may have caused the mass extinctions of organisms at the end of the Late Cretaceous Epoch?

  • (1) the Big Bang
  • (2) an asteroid impact
  • (3) formation of Pangaea
  • (4) shifting of Earth’s magnetic poles
Answer: (2) an asteroid impact 

9. The diagram below represents the placoderm fish Bothriolepis, an index fossil found in New York State.

The surface bedrock at which location is most likely to contain this fossil?

  • (1) Ithaca
  • (2) Old Forge
  • (3) Albany
  • (4) New York City
Answer: (1) Ithaca 

10. The geologic cross section below includes an unconformity and an igneous intrusion.

Which two events produced the geologic unconformity in the rock record?

  • (1) intrusion of magma, followed by contact metamorphism
  • (2) intrusion of magma, followed by erosion of rock layers
  • (3) erosion of rock layers, followed by deposition of more sediments
  • (4) erosion of rock layers, followed by intrusion of magma
Answer: (3) erosion of rock layers, followed by deposition of more sediments 

11. Which map best represents the surface wind pattern around Northern Hemisphere high-pressure and low-pressure centers?

Answer: (1)  

12. What is the dewpoint when the dry-bulb temperature is 12°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 7°C?

  • (1) 1°C
  • (2) 5°C
  • (3) 28°C
  • (4) 48°C
Answer: (1) 1°C 

13. The station model below shows some weather conditions at a location on Earth’s surface.

Which present weather symbol represents the most likely type of precipitation occurring at this location?

Answer: (4)

14. In which atmospheric temperature zone does most precipitation occur?

  • (1) thermosphere
  • (2) mesosphere
  • (3) stratosphere
  • (4) troposphere
Answer: (4) troposphere 

15. Which tectonic feature is associated with a complex or uncertain plate boundary?

  • (1) Southwest Indian Ridge
  • (2) East African Rift
  • (3) Mariana Trench
  • (4) Galapagos Hot Spot
Answer: (2) East African Rift 

16. Which types of surface bedrock are most likely found near Jamestown, New York?

  • (1) slate and marble
  • (2) quartzite and granite
  • (3) shale and sandstone
  • (4) schist and gneiss
Answer: (3) shale and sandstone 

17. The map of North America below shows the source region of an air mass forming mostly over Mexico.

This air mass originating over Mexico is classified as

  • (1) continental polar
  • (2) continental tropical
  • (3) maritime polar
  • (4) maritime tropical
Answer: (1) continental tropical 

18. Which cross section best represents the valley shape where a rapidly flowing stream is cutting into the bedrock in a mountainous area?

Answer: (4)  

19. The photograph below shows scratched and grooved bedrock with boulders on its surface.

The scratches and grooves were most likely created when

  • (1) alternating thawing and freezing of water cracked the bedrock
  • (2) flooding from a nearby lake covered the bedrock
  • (3) a glacier dragged rocks over the bedrock
  • (4) rocks from a landslide slid along the bedrock
Answer: (3) a glacier dragged rocks over the bedrock 

20. The natural sandblasting (abrasion) of surface bedrock in a desert region is the result of

  • (1) wind erosion
  • (2) wave erosion
  • (3) mass movement
  • (4) chemical precipitation
Answer: (1) wind erosion 

21. Which group of substances is arranged in order of decreasing specific heat values?

  • (1) iron, granite, basalt
  • (2) copper, lead, iron
  • (3) dry air, water vapor, ice
  • (4) liquid water, ice, water vapor
Answer: (4) liquid water, ice, water vapor 

22. The minerals talc, muscovite mica, quartz, and olivine are similar because they

  • (1) have the same hardness
  • (2) are the same color
  • (3) contain silicon and oxygen
  • (4) break along cleavage planes
Answer: (3) contain silicon and oxygen 

23. The photograph below shows Mt. Kilimanjaro, a volcano in Africa, located near the equator.

Which climate factor is responsible for the snow seen on Mt. Kilimanjaro?

  • (1) high latitude
  • (2) high elevation
  • (3) nearness to a cold ocean current
  • (4) nearness to a high-pressure weather center
Answer: (2) high elevation 

24. The photograph below shows a large outcrop of rock composed primarily of visible crystals of mica, quartz, and feldspar.

Based on the composition and foliated texture, this rock can best be identified as

  • (1) marble
  • (2) schist
  • (3) slate
  • (4) anthracite coal
Answer: (2) schist 

25. Which diagram best represents the regions of Earth in sunlight on June 21 and December 21? [NP indicates the North Pole and the shading represents Earth’s night side. Diagrams are not drawn to scale.]

Answer: (3)  

26. The diagram below represents three identical beakers, A, B, and C, each containing an equal volume of uniform-sized spherical beads. Water is poured into each beaker until all of the pore spaces are filled.

Which table best indicates the percentage of pore space compared to the total volume of each beaker?

Answer: (1)  

27. The timeline below represents time on Earth from the beginning of the Paleozoic Era (A) to the present (B).

Which numbered position best represents the time when humans first appeared in the fossil record?

  • (1) 1
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 3
  • (4) 4
Answer: (4) 4 

28. The cross sections below represent three outcrops, labeled I, II, and III, containing some New York State index fossils. The rock layers have not been overturned.

When the rock layers in the three outcrops are correlated, the oldest layer is the

  • (1) shale layer in outcrop I
  • (2) siltstone layer in outcrop II
  • (3) limestone layer in outcrop III
  • (4) conglomerate layer in outcrop III
Answer: (2) siltstone layer in outcrop II 

29. A bar graph of the radioactive decay of carbon-14 is shown below.

The solid black sections of the bars on the graph represent the percentages of

  • (1) carbon-14 from the original sample that has not decayed
  • (2) uranium-238 from the original sample that has not decayed
  • (3) nitrogen-14 decay product resulting from the radioactive decay
  • (4) lead-206 decay product resulting from the radioactive decay
Answer: (3) nitrogen-14 decay product resulting from the radioactive decay 

30. Which weather instrument is used to determine wind direction?

Answer: (2)  

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