Earth Science January 2011

Earth Science January 2011 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
EARTH SCIENCE
Wednesday, January 26, 2011 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write in your answer booklet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2010 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

1. If an observer on Earth views Polaris on the horizon, the observer is located at the

  • (1) equator (0°)
  • (2) North Pole (90° N)
  • (3) Tropic of Cancer (23.5° N)
  • (4) Tropic of Capricorn (23.5° S)
Answer: (1) equator (0°) 

2. The theory that the universe is expanding is supported by the

  • (1) blue shift of light from distant galaxies
  • (2) red shift of light from distant galaxies
  • (3) nuclear fusion occurring in the Sun
  • (4) radioactive decay occurring in the Sun
Answer: (2) red shift of light from distant galaxies 

3. Most scientists believe Earth’s Early Archean atmosphere was formed primarily by gases released from

  • (1) stream erosion
  • (2) chemical weathering
  • (3) volcanic eruptions
  • (4) plant transpiration
Answer: (3) volcanic eruptions 

4. During which month does the Sun appear to rise farthest north of due east for an observer in New York State?

  • (1) December
  • (2) January
  • (3) June
  • (4) July
Answer: (3) June 

5. How many degrees does the Sun appear to move across the sky in four hours?

  • (1) 60°
  • (2) 45°
  • (3) 15°
  • (4) 4°
Answer: (1) 60° 

6. Which type of land surface will most likely absorb the greatest amount of incoming solar radiation?

  • (1) rough, dark-colored surface
  • (2) rough, light-colored surface
  • (3) smooth, dark-colored surface
  • (4) smooth, light-colored surface
Answer: (1) rough, dark-colored surface 

7. Which graph best shows the general relationship between altitude and temperature in the troposphere?

Answer: (2)  

8. Which weather variable is measured by a barometer?

  • (1) dewpoint
  • (2) wind speed
  • (3) air pressure
  • (4) visibility
Answer: (3) air pressure 

9. During which phase change will the greatest amount of energy be absorbed by 1 gram of water?

  • (1) melting
  • (2) freezing
  • (3) evaporation
  • (4) condensation
Answer: (3) evaporation 

10. The least amount of surface water runoff will occur when soil pore spaces are

  • (1) saturated and the slope is steep
  • (2) saturated and the slope is gentle
  • (3) unsaturated and the slope is steep
  • (4) unsaturated and the slope is gentle
Answer: (4) unsaturated and the slope is gentle 

11. Which map best shows the general surface wind pattern in a low-pressure system located over the eastern United States?

Answer: (2)  

12. Which landscape surface resulted primarily from erosion by glaciers?

Answer: (3)  

13. The formation of soil is primarily the result of

  • (1) stream erosion and mass movement
  • (2) stream deposition and runoff
  • (3) precipitation and wind erosion
  • (4) weathering and biological activity
Answer: (4) weathering and biological activity 

14. Sediments found in glacial moraines are best described as

  • (1) sorted and layered
  • (2) sorted and not layered
  • (3) unsorted and layered
  • (4) unsorted and not layered
Answer: (4) unsorted and not layered 

15. Old Forge and Watertown, located at nearly the same latitude in New York State, have very different landscapes. Which factor is primarily responsible for these landscape differences?

  • (1) average annual temperature
  • (2) average annual precipitation
  • (3) bedrock structure
  • (4) soil characteristics
Answer: (3) bedrock structure 

16. The topographic map below shows the location of a stream. Points A and B are locations on Earth’s surface.

What is the gradient between points A and B?

  • (1) 1 m/km
  • (2) 2 m/km
  • (3) 10 m/km
  • (4) 20 m/km
Answer: (3) 10 m/km 

17. In which New York State landscape region have fossilized footprints of Coelophysis dinosaurs been found in the surface bedrock?

  • (1) Allegheny Plateau
  • (2) Tug Hill Plateau
  • (3) Hudson-Mohawk Lowlands
  • (4) Newark Lowlands
Answer: (4) Newark Lowlands 

18. Which geologic event is inferred to have occurred most recently?

  • (1) collision between North America and Africa
  • (2) metamorphism of the bedrock of the Hudson Highlands
  • (3) formation of the Queenston delta
  • (4) initial opening of the Atlantic Ocean
Answer: (4) initial opening of the Atlantic Ocean 

19. The index fossil shown below has been found in New York State sedimentary bedrock

Which other index fossil could also be found in New York State bedrock of the same age?

Answer: (3)  

20. Which rock is only formed by regional metamorphism?

  • (1) slate
  • (2) hornfels
  • (3) dunite
  • (4) marble
Answer: (1) slate 

21. The Indian-Australian tectonic plate is moving

  • (1) away from the Philippine Plate
  • (2) away from the Fiji Plate
  • (3) toward the Pacific Plate
  • (4) toward the Antarctic Plate
Answer: (3) toward the Pacific Plate 

22. The inferred temperature at the interface between the stiffer mantle and the asthenosphere is closest to

  • (1) 1000°C
  • (2) 2500°C
  • (3) 4500°C
  • (4) 5000°C
Answer: (2) 2500°C 

23. Which mineral can be found in all samples of rhyolite and andesite?

  • (1) pyroxene
  • (2) quartz
  • (3) biotite
  • (4) potassium feldspar
Answer: (3) biotite 

24. A student classified the rock below as sedimentary.

Which observation about the rock best supports this classification?

  • (1) The rock is composed of several minerals.
  • (2) The rock has a vesicular texture.
  • (3) The rock contains fragments of other rocks.
  • (4) The rock shows distorted and stretched pebbles.
Answer: (3) The rock contains fragments of other rocks. 

25. Which material is made mostly of the mineral quartz?

  • (1) sulfuric acid
  • (2) pencil lead
  • (3) plaster of paris
  • (4) window glass
Answer: (4) window glass 

26. Which pie graph correctly shows the percentage of elements by volume in Earth’s troposphere?

Answer: (1)  

27. The symbols below represent star masses and distances.

Which diagram shows two stars that have the greatest gravitational force between them?

Answer: (3)  

28. The diagram below shows the position of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth during a solar eclipse. The full shadow (umbra) and partial shadow (penumbra) of the Moon and Earth are shown.

Which diagram best represents the appearance of the Sun and the Moon to an observer located within the umbra of the Moon’s shadow on Earth’s surface?

Answer: (1)  

29. The map below shows surface air temperatures, in degrees Fahrenheit, reported by weather stations in the north-central United States. Letter X represents an air mass moving in the direction shown by the arrow. A line marks a frontal boundary advancing in a southeasterly direction.

Which weather-map symbols best represent air-mass X and the frontal boundary shown on the map?

Answer: (1)  

30. The block diagram below shows a cross section of a landscape. Letters A, B, C, D, and E represent different rock layers

Which rock layers appear to be most resistant to weathering?

  • (1) A and B
  • (2) B and D
  • (3) C, D, and E
  • (4) A, C, and E
Answer: (4) A, C, and E 

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