Earth Science January 2010

Earth Science January 2010 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
EARTH SCIENCE
Wednesday, January 27, 2010 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2010 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

1. The diagram below shows latitude measurements every 10 degrees and longitude measurements every 15 degrees.

What is the latitude and longitude of point X?

  • (1) 40° S 45° E
  • (2) 50° N 45° W
  • (3) 60° S 30° W
  • (4) 75° N 30° E
Answer: (2) 50° N 45° W 

2. In which sequence are the items listed from least total mass to greatest total mass?

  • (1) solar system, Milky Way, universe
  • (2) Milky Way, solar system, universe
  • (3) universe, Milky Way, solar system
  • (4) Milky Way, universe, solar system
Answer: (1) solar system, Milky Way, universe 

3. The red shift of visible light waves that is observed by astronomers on Earth is used to determine the

  • (1) sizes of nearby galaxies
  • (2) relative motions of distant galaxies
  • (3) densities of the planets
  • (4) rotation periods of the planets
Answer: (2) relative motions of distant galaxies 

4. At which New York State location would an observer measure the highest altitude of Polaris?

  • (1) New York City
  • (2) Slide Mountain
  • (3) Niagara Falls
  • (4) Plattsburgh
Answer: (4) Plattsburgh 

5. How many days are required for the Moon to go from one full-Moon phase to the next full-Moon phase when viewed from Earth?

  • (1) 24
  • (2) 27.3
  • (3) 29.5
  • (4) 365
Answer: (3) 29.5 

6. If the average distance between Earth and the Sun were doubled, what changes would occur in the Sun’s gravitational pull on Earth and Earth’s period of revolution?

  • (1) Gravitational pull would decrease and period of revolution would increase.
  • (2) Gravitational pull would decrease and period of revolution would decrease.
  • (3) Gravitational pull would increase and period of revolution would increase.
  • (4) Gravitational pull would increase and period of revolution would decrease.
Answer: (1) Gravitational pull would decrease and period of revolution would increase. 

7. The Foucault pendulum provides evidence of Earth’s

  • (1) revolution around the Sun in a geocentric solar system
  • (2) revolution around the Sun in a heliocentric solar system
  • (3) rotation on its axis in a geocentric solar system
  • (4) rotation on its axis in a heliocentric solar system
Answer: (4) rotation on its axis in a heliocentric solar system 

8. The first S-wave arrived at a seismograph station 11 minutes after an earthquake occurred. How long after the arrival of the first P-wave did this first S-wave arrive?

  • (1) 3 min 15 s
  • (2) 4 min 55 s
  • (3) 6 min 05 s
  • (4) 9 min 00 s
Answer: (2) 4 min 55 s 

9. An air mass classified as cT usually forms over which type of Earth surface?

  • (1) cool water
  • (2) cool land
  • (3) warm water
  • (4) warm land
Answer: (4) warm land 

10. What is the dewpoint when the dry-bulb temperature is 24°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 21°C?

  • (1) 16°C
  • (2) 18°C
  • (3) 20°C
  • (4) 21°C
Answer: (3) 20°C 

11. During which process does water gain the most heat energy?

  • (1) condensation
  • (2) freezing
  • (3) evaporation
  • (4) melting
Answer: (3) evaporation 

12. The graph below shows the general relationship between latitude and the duration of insolation on a particular day of the year

Which date is represented by the graph?

  • (1) March 21
  • (2) June 21
  • (3) September 21
  • (4) December 21
Answer: (2) June 21 

13. Eurypterid fossils are abundant in the Bertie dolostone, a sedimentary rock layer found in western New York State. The presence of both the eurypterids and the dolostone indicates that, during the formation of this rock layer, this region of New York State was

  • (1) covered by evaporating shallow seas
  • (2) uplifted and eroded
  • (3) buried beneath lava flows
  • (4) intensely metamorphosed
Answer: (1) covered by evaporating shallow seas 

14. The table below shows information about the radioactive decay of carbon-14.

What is the amount of carbon-14 remaining after 28,500 years?

Answer: (3)  

15. Which coastal location experiences a cooler summer climate due to ocean currents?

  • (1) southeast coast of North America
  • (2) northeast coast of Australia
  • (3) southwest coast of South America
  • (4) northwest coast of Europe
Answer: (3) southwest coast of South America 

16. According to the fossil record, which group of organisms has existed for the greatest length of time?

  • (1) gastropods
  • (2) corals
  • (3) mammals
  • (4) vascular plants
Answer: (1) gastropods 

17. The division of Earth’s geologic history into units of time called eons, eras, periods, and epochs is based on

  • (1) absolute dating techniques
  • (2) fossil evidence
  • (3) climatic changes
  • (4) seismic data
Answer: (2) fossil evidence 

18. Which statement is best supported by the fossil record?

  • (1) Fossils are found in nearly all rocks.
  • (2) Fossils are found only in areas that were once under water.
  • (3) Most early life-forms that left fossil remains are now extinct.
  • (4) Most early life-forms that left fossil remains still exist today.
Answer: (3) Most early life-forms that left fossil remains are now extinct. 

19. U-shaped valleys and parallel grooves in bedrock are characteristics of erosion by

  • (1) mass movement
  • (2) wave action
  • (3) running water
  • (4) glacial ice
Answer: (4) glacial ice 

20. Which mineral is the major component of drywall?

  • (1) talc
  • (2) calcite
  • (3) muscovite mica
  • (4) selenite gypsum
Answer: (4) selenite gypsum 

21. Which element is most abundant in Earth’s crust?

  • (1) nitrogen
  • (2) hydrogen
  • (3) oxygen
  • (4) silicon
Answer: (3) oxygen 

22. What elevation and bedrock structure are generally found in the Catskills?

  • (1) low elevation and horizontal sedimentary bedrock structure
  • (2) high elevation and horizontal sedimentary bedrock structure
  • (3) low elevation and folded metamorphic bedrock structure
  • (4) high elevation and folded metamorphic bedrock structure
Answer: (2) high elevation and horizontal sedimentary bedrock structure 

23. The Mariana Trench was most likely created by the

  • (1) convergence of the Pacific and Philippine Plates
  • (2) divergence of the Eurasian and Philippine Plates
  • (3) sliding of the Pacific Plate past the North American Plate
  • (4) movement of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii Hot Spot
Answer: (1) convergence of the Pacific and Philippine Plates 

24. The landscape diagram below shows a fan-shaped pattern of sediment deposits.

The fan-shaped pattern of these sediments is most likely the result of deposition by

  • (1) glacial ice
  • (2) ocean waves
  • (3) running water
  • (4) prevailing winds
Answer: (3) running water 

25. Four quartz samples of equal size and shape were placed in a stream. Which of the four quartz samples below has most likely been transported farthest in the stream?

Answer: (4)  

26. The diagram below shows Earth as viewed from space.

Which season is beginning in the Northern Hemisphere?

  • (1) spring
  • (2) summer
  • (3) fall
  • (4) winter
Answer: (4) winter 

27. The table below shows the latitude and the average yearly temperature for four different cities.

It can be inferred from this table that the cities at higher latitudes have

  • (1) lower average yearly temperatures because these cities receive insolation at a higher angle during the year
  • (2) lower average yearly temperatures because these cities receive insolation at a lower angle during the year
  • (3) higher average yearly temperatures because these cities receive insolation at a higher angle during the year
  • (4) higher average yearly temperatures because these cities receive insolation at a lower angle during the year
Answer: (2) lower average yearly temperatures because these cities receive insolation at a lower angle during the year 

Base your answers to questions 28 and 29 on the diagram below, which shows air movement over a mountain range. The arrows indicate the direction of airflow. Points 1 through 3 represent locations on Earth’s surface.

28. Compared to the climate at location 1, the climate at location 3 is

  • (1) cooler and drier
  • (2) cooler and wetter
  • (3) warmer and drier
  • (4) warmer and wetter
Answer: (3) warmer and drier 

29. Cloud formation at location 2 is the direct result of air that is rising,

  • (1) expanding, and cooling
  • (2) expanding, and warming
  • (3) compressing, and cooling
  • (4) compressing, and warming
Answer: (1) expanding, and cooling 

30. The diagram below shows the latitude and longitude lines on Earth. Points A and B are locations on Earth’s surface.

If it is 4 a.m. at location A, what time is it at location B?

  • (1) 10 a.m.
  • (2) 2 a.m.
  • (3) 6 a.m.
  • (4) 8 a.m.
Answer: (4) 8 a.m. 

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