Earth Science January 2009

Earth Science January 2009 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
EARTH SCIENCE
Wednesday, January 28, 2009 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.

1. Which statement describes the general relationship between the temperature and the luminosity of main sequence stars?

  • (1) As temperature decreases, luminosity increases.
  • (2) As temperature decreases, luminosity remains the same.
  • (3) As temperature increases, luminosity increases.
  • (4) As temperature increases, luminosity remains the same.
Answer: (3) As temperature increases, luminosity increases. 

2. Which planet has the least distance between the two foci of its elliptical orbit?

  • (1) Venus
  • (2) Earth
  • (3) Mars
  • (4) Jupiter
Answer: (1) Venus  

3. Earth’s rate of rotation is approximately

  • (1) 1° per day
  • (2) 15° per day
  • (3) 180° per day
  • (4) 360° per day
Answer: (4) 360° per day 

4. Light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation are given off by stars using energy released during

  • (1) nuclear fusion
  • (2) conduction
  • (3) convection
  • (4) radioactive decay
Answer: (1) nuclear fusion  

5. The path of a Foucault pendulum provides evidence that Earth

  • (1) rotates on its axis
  • (2) revolves in its orbit
  • (3) is tilted on its axis
  • (4) has an elliptical orbit
Answer: (1) rotates on its axis 

6. What time is it in Greenwich, England (at 0° longitude), when it is noon in Massena, New York?

  • (1) 7 a.m.
  • (2) noon
  • (3) 5 p.m.
  • (4) 10 p.m.
Answer: (3) 5 p.m. 

7. The diagram below shows two identical containers filled with uniform particles that were sorted by size.

Which characteristic is most likely the same for these particle-filled containers?

  • (1) infiltration rate
  • (2) water retention
  • (3) capillarity
  • (4) porosity
Answer: (4) porosity 

8. Which soil conditions normally result in the greatest amount of runoff?

  • (1) low permeability and gentle slope
  • (2) low permeability and steep slope
  • (3) high permeability and gentle slope
  • (4) high permeability and steep slope
Answer: (2) low permeability and steep slope 

9. Very cold climates occur at Earth’s North and South Poles because the polar regions

  • (1) are usually farthest from the Sun
  • (2) absorb the greatest amount of insolation
  • (3) receive the most hours of daylight
  • (4) receive low-angle insolation
Answer: (4) receive low-angle insolation 

10. A barometric pressure of 1021.0 millibars is equal to how many inches of mercury?

  • (1) 29.88
  • (2) 30.15
  • (3) 30.25
  • (4) 30.50
Answer: (2) 30.15 

11. The diagrams below show apparent changes in the positions of the stars in the Big Dipper that have  occurred in the past 200,000 years. The directions of individual star movements as seen from Earth are shown by the arrows.

Which diagram best represents how the Big Dipper will appear when viewed from Earth in 200,000 years?

Answer: (1)  

12. On which station model would the present weather symbol * most likely be found?

Answer: (3)  

13. The letters A through D in the cross section below represent four of the processes that are part of the water cycle.

Which table correctly matches each letter with the process that it represents?

Answer: (4)
`

14. The cross section below shows a sea breeze blowing from the ocean toward the land. The air pressure at the land surface is 1013 millibars.

The air pressure at the ocean surface a few miles from the shore is most likely

  • (1) 994 mb
  • (2) 1005 mb
  • (3) 1013 mb
  • (4) 1017 mb
Answer: (4) 1017 mb 

15. An instrument used to measure a weather variable is shown below.

Which weather variable is measured by this instrument?

  • (1) wind direction
  • (2) air pressure
  • (3) wind speed
  • (4) amount of rainfall
Answer: (3) wind speed 

16. Mt. Marcy often has the coldest nighttime temperatures in New York State because of its

  • (1) latitude and planetary winds
  • (2) latitude and elevation
  • (3) longitude and planetary winds
  • (4) longitude and elevation
Answer: (2) latitude and elevation 

17. The map below shows a weather variable recorded at noon on a certain day. Isolines show values from 20 to 70.

Which atmospheric variable is most likely represented by the isolines on this map?

  • (1) snowfall in inches
  • (2) wind speed in knots
  • (3) barometric pressure in millibars\
  • (4) air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
Answer: (4) air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit 

18. Which combination of temperature and pressure is inferred to occur within Earth’s stiffer mantle?

  • (1) 3500°C and 0.4 million atmospheres
  • (2) 3500°C and 2.0 million atmospheres
  • (3) 5500°C and 0.4 million atmospheres
  • (4) 5500°C and 2.0 million atmospheres
Answer: (1) 3500°C and 0.4 million atmospheres 

19. The diagram below indicates the amount of solar radiation that is reflected by equal areas of various materials on Earth’s surface.

Which material absorbs the most solar radiation?

  • (1) grassy field
  • (2) fresh snow
  • (3) sand
  • (4) forest
Answer: (4) forest 

20. The diagram below shows a process thought to have produced Earth’s early atmosphere.

Which major component is shown as gas X?

  • (1) helium
  • (2) ozone
  • (3) carbon dioxide
  • (4) hydrogen
Answer: (3) carbon dioxide 

21. During which two geologic time periods did most of the surface bedrock of the Taconic Mountains form?

  • (1) Cambrian and Ordovician
  • (2) Silurian and Devonian
  • (3) Pennsylvanian and Mississippian
  • (4) Triassic and Jurassic
Answer: (1) Cambrian and Ordovician 

22. Which event is an example of chemical weathering?

  • (1) rocks falling off the face of a steep cliff
  • (2) feldspar in granite being crushed into claysized particles
  • (3) water freezing in cracks in a roadside outcrop
  • (4) acid rain reacting with limestone bedrock
Answer: (4) acid rain reacting with limestone bedrock 

23. The entire area drained by a river and its tributaries is called a

  • (1) delta
  • (2) watershed
  • (3) valley
  • (4) floodplain
Answer: (2) watershed 

24. A meandering stream deposits most of its sediments on the

  • (1) inside of meanders where the stream flows faster
  • (2) inside of meanders where the stream flows slower
  • (3) outside of meanders where the stream flows faster
  • (4) outside of meanders where the stream flows slower
Answer: (2) inside of meanders where the stream flows slower 

25. Which natural agent of erosion is mainly responsible for the formation of the barrier islands along the southern coast of Long Island, New York?

  • (1) mass movement
  • (2) running water
  • (3) prevailing winds
  • (4) ocean waves
Answer: (4) ocean waves 

26. Which geologic event occurred in New York State at approximately the same time that eurypterids were becoming extinct?

  • (1) the opening of the Atlantic Ocean
  • (2) the uplift of the Appalachian Mountains
  • (3) the formation of the Catskill Delta
  • (4) the intrusion of the Palisades Sill
Answer: (3) the formation of the Catskill Delta 

27. Which group of elements is listed in increasing order based on the percent by mass in Earth’s crust?

  • (1) aluminum, iron, calcium
  • (2) aluminum, silicon, magnesium
  • (3) magnesium, iron, aluminum
  • (4) magnesium, silicon, calcium
Answer: (3) magnesium, iron, aluminum 

28. Which observation provides the best evidence that Earth revolves around the Sun?

  • (1) The constellation Orion is only visible in the night sky for part of the year.
  • (2) The North Star, Polaris, is located above the North Pole for the entire year.
  • (3) The Sun appears to move across Earth’s sky at a rate of 15°/hr.
  • (4) The Coriolis effect causes Northern Hemisphere winds to curve to the right.
Answer: (1) The constellation Orion is only visible in the night sky for part of the year. 

29. One reason Tetragraptus is considered a good index fossil is that Tetragraptus

  • (1) existed during a large part of the Paleozoic Era
  • (2) has no living relatives found on Earth today
  • (3) existed over a wide geographic area
  • (4) has been found in New York State
Answer: (3) existed over a wide geographic area 

30. What is the dewpoint temperature when the relative humidity is 30% and the air temperature is 20°C?

  • (1) –28°C
  • (2) 2°C
  • (3) 6°C
  • (4) 9°C
Answer: (2) 2°C 

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