Earth Science January 2008

Earth Science January 2008 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
EARTH SCIENCE
Wednesday, January 23, 2008 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.

1. One factor responsible for the strength of gravitational attraction between a planet and the Sun is the

  • (1) degree of tilt of the planet’s axis
  • (2) distance between the planet and the Sun
  • (3) planet’s period of rotation
  • (4) amount of insolation given off by the Sun
Answer: (2) distance between the planet and the Sun 

2. Which planet is located approximately ten times farther from the Sun than Earth is from the Sun?

  • (1) Mars
  • (2) Jupiter
  • (3) Saturn
  • (4) Uranus
Answer: (3) Saturn 

3. Large craters found on Earth support the hypothesis that impact events have caused

  • (1) a decrease in the number of earthquakes and an increase in sea level
  • (2) an increase in solar radiation and a decrease in Earth radiation
  • (3) the red shift of light from distant stars and the blue shift of light from nearby stars
  • (4) mass extinctions of life-forms and global climate changes
Answer: (4) mass extinctions of life-forms and global climate changes 

4. What is the inferred age of our solar system, inmillions of years?

  • (1) 544
  • (2) 1300
  • (3) 4600
  • (4) 10,000
Answer: (3) 4600 

5. The water table usually rises when there is

  • (1) a decrease in the amount of infiltration
  • (2) a decrease in the amount of surface area covered by vegetation
  • (3) an increase in the amount of precipitation
  • (4) an increase in the slope of the land
Answer: (3) an increase in the amount of precipitation 

6. What causes the Coriolis effect?

  • (1) Earth’s tilt on its axis
  • (2) the spin of Earth on its axis
  • (3) the orbital motion of the Moon around Earth
  • (4) the orbital motion of Earth around the Sun
Answer: (2) the spin of Earth on its axis 

7. What is the relative humidity when the dry-bulb temperature is 16°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 14°C?

  • (1) 90%
  • (2) 80%
  • (3) 14%
  • (4) 13%
Answer: (2) 80% 

8. Which weather instrument is used to measure wind speed?

  • (1) anemometer
  • (2) wind vane
  • (3) psychrometer
  • (4) thermometer
Answer: (1) anemometer  

9. A weather station model is shown below

What is the barometric pressure indicated by this station model?

  • (1) 0.029 mb
  • (2) 902.9 mb
  • (3) 1002.9 mb
  • (4) 1029.0 mb
Answer: (3) 1002.9 mb 

10. The upward movement of air in the atmosphere generally causes the temperature of that air to

  • (1) decrease and become closer to the dewpoint
  • (2) decrease and become farther from the dewpoint
  • (3) increase and become closer to the dewpoint
  • (4) increase and become farther from the dewpoint
Answer: (1) decrease and become closer to the dewpoint 

11. Which bar graph correctly shows the orbital eccentricity of the planets in our solar system?

Answer: (1)  

12. The diagram below shows Earth in its orbit around the Sun. Positions A, B, C, and D represent Earth at the beginning of each season.

At which lettered position of Earth does New York State experience the first day of summer?

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (3) C 

13. The cross section below shows a house on the shore of Lake Ontario in August.

Under which conditions would the wind shown in the cross section most likely occur?

  • (1) at 2 a.m., when the air over land is 70°F and the air over the lake is 80°F
  • (2) at 6 a.m., when the air over land is 70°F and the air over the lake is 70°F
  • (3) at 2 p.m., when the air over land is 80°F and the air over the lake is 70°F
  • (4) at 10 p.m., when the air over land is 70°F and the air over the lake is 72°F
Answer: (3) at 2 p.m., when the air over land is 80°F and the air over the lake is 70°F 

14. Which type of surface absorbs the greatest amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun?

  • (1) smooth, shiny, and light colored
  • (2) smooth, shiny, and dark colored
  • (3) rough, dull, and light colored
  • (4) rough, dull, and dark colored
Answer: (4) rough, dull, and dark colored 

15. Which New York State location is most likely to experience the heaviest winter snowfall when the surface winds are blowing from the west or northwest?

  • (1) New York City
  • (2) Binghamton
  • (3) Oswego
  • (4) Plattsburgh
Answer: (3) Oswego 

16. The largest particles that a stream deposits as it enters a pond are 8 centimeters in diameter. The minimum velocity of the stream is approximately

  • (1) 100 cm/sec
  • (2) 200 cm/sec
  • (3) 300 cm/sec
  • (4) 400 cm/sec
Answer: (2) 200 cm/sec 

17. Which ocean current transports warm water away from Earth’s equatorial region?

  • (1) Brazil Current
  • (2) Guinea Current
  • (3) Falkland Current
  • (4) California Current
Answer: (1) Brazil Current  

18. The data table below shows the density of four different mineral samples.

A student accurately measured the mass of a sample of one of the four minerals to be 294.4 grams and its volume to be 73.6 cm3. Which mineral sample did the student measure?

  • (1) corundum
  • (2) galena
  • (3) hematite
  • (4) quartz
Answer: (1) corundum 

19. Which mineral has a metallic luster, a black streak, and is an ore of iron?

  • (1) galena
  • (2) magnetite
  • (3) pyroxene
  • (4) graphite
Answer: (2) magnetite 

20. The edges of most lithospheric plates are characterized by

  • (1) reversed magnetic orientation
  • (2) unusually rapid radioactive decay
  • (3) frequent volcanic activity
  • (4) low P-wave and high S-wave velocity
Answer: (3) frequent volcanic activity 

21. Compared to Earth’s continental crust, Earth’s oceanic crust is

  • (1) thinner and more dense
  • (2) thinner and less dense
  • (3) thicker and more dense
  • (4) thicker and less dense
Answer: (1) thinner and more dense 

22. In which set are the rock drawings labeled with their correct rock types?

Answer: (4)  

23. The topographic map below shows a lake and two rivers.

In which direction does each of the rivers flow?

  • (1) The Sapphire River and the Garnet River both flow east.
  • (2) The Sapphire River and the Garnet River both flow west.
  • (3) The Sapphire River flows east and the Garnet River flows west.
  • (4) The Sapphire River flows west and the Garnet River flows east.
Answer: (1) The Sapphire River and the Garnet River both flow east. 

24. The map below shows the northern section of the boundary between the Arabian Plate and the African Plate. Arrows show the relative direction of plate motion.

Which type of plate boundary is located at the Jordan Fault?

  • (1) divergent
  • (2) subduction
  • (3) convergent
  • (4) transform
Answer: (4) transform 

25. A seismograph station recorded the arrival of the first P-wave at 7:32 p.m. from an earthquake that occurred 4000 kilometers away. What time was it at the station when the earthquake occurred?

  • (1) 7:20 p.m.
  • (2) 7:25 p.m.
  • (3) 7:32 p.m.
  • (4) 7:39 p.m.
Answer: (2) 7:25 p.m. 

26. Which temperature is inferred to exist in Earth’s plastic mantle?

  • (1) 2000°C
  • (2) 3000°C
  • (3) 5000°C
  • (4) 6000°C
Answer: (1) 2000°C  

27. Which statement correctly compares seismic P-waves with seismic S-waves?

  • (1) P-waves travel faster than S-waves and pass through Earth’s liquid zones.
  • (2) P-waves travel faster than S-waves and do not pass through Earth’s liquid zones.
  • (3) P-waves travel slower than S-waves and pass through Earth’s liquid zones.
  • (4) P-waves travel slower than S-waves and do not pass through Earth’s liquid zones.
Answer: (1) P-waves travel faster than S-waves and pass through Earth’s liquid zones. 

28. What is the geologic age sequence of the surface bedrock from Ithaca, New York, to Watertown, New York?

  • (1) Ordovician, Taconic, Cambrian
  • (2) Ordovician, Tertiary, Pleistocene
  • (3) Devonian, Silurian, Cambrian
  • (4) Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician
Answer: (4) Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician 

29. A whalebone that originally contained 200 grams of radioactive carbon-14 now contains 25 grams of carbon-14. How many carbon-14 half-lives have passed since this whale was alive?

  • (1) 1
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 3
  • (4) 4
Answer: (3) 3 

30. Which geologic event occurred during the same geologic period as the first appearance of modern corals in Earth’s oceans?

  • (1) Grenville Orogeny
  • (2) Acadian Orogeny
  • (3) intrusion of the Palisades Sill
  • (4) formation of the Catskill Delta
Answer: (3) intrusion of the Palisades Sill 

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