Earth Science January 2006

Earth Science January 2006 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
CHEMISTRY
Thursday, January 26, 2006 — 1:15 to 4:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

1. Which two nuclides are isotopes of the same element?

Answer: (3)  

2. An atom of oxygen is in an excited state. When an electron in this atom moves from the third shell to the second shell, energy is

  • (1) emitted by the nucleus
  • (2) emitted by the electron
  • (3) absorbed by the nucleus
  • (4) absorbed by the electron
Answer: (2) emitted by the electron 

3. The charge of a beryllium-9 nucleus is

  • (1) +13
  • (2) +9
  • (3) +5
  • (4) +4
Answer: (4) +4 

4. Which sequence represents a correct order of historical developments leading to the modern model of the atom?

  • (1) the atom is a hard sphere → most of the atom is empty space → electrons exist in orbitals outside the nucleus
  • (2) the atom is a hard sphere → electrons exist in orbitals outside the nucleus → most of the atom is empty space
  • (3) most of the atom is empty space → electrons exist in orbitals outside the nucleus → the atom is a hard sphere
  • (4) most of the atom is empty space → the atom is a hard sphere → electrons exist in orbitals outside the nucleus
Answer: (1) the atom is a hard sphere → most of the atom is empty space → electrons exist in orbitals outside the nucleus 

5. Which statement describes a chemical property of oxygen?

  • (1) Oxygen has a melting point of 55 K.
  • (2) Oxygen can combine with a metal to produce a compound.
  • (3) Oxygen gas is slightly soluble in water.
  • (4) Oxygen gas can be compressed.
Answer: (2) Oxygen can combine with a metal to produce a compound. 

6. The element in Group 14, Period 3 on the Periodic Table is classified as a

  • (1) metal
  • (2) noble gas
  • (3) metalloid
  • (4) nonmetal
Answer: (3) metalloid 

7. Which trends are observed when the elements in Period 3 on the Periodic Table are considered in order of increasing atomic number?

  • (1) The atomic radius decreases, and the first ionization energy generally increases.
  • (2) The atomic radius decreases, and the first ionization energy generally decreases.
  • (3) The atomic radius increases, and the first ionization energy generally increases.
  • (4) The atomic radius increases, and the first ionization energy generally decreases.
Answer: (1) The atomic radius decreases, and the first ionization energy generally increases. 

8. What is the chemical formula for sodium sulfate?

  • (1) Na2SO3
  • (2) Na2SO4
  • (3) NaSO3
  • (4) NaSO4
Answer: (2) Na2SO4 

9. Given the structural formula: What is the empirical formula of this compound?

What is the empirical formula of this compound?

  • (1) CH3O
  • (2) C2H5O
  • (3) C4H10O2
  • (4) C8H20O4
Answer: (2) C2H5O 

10. Which chemical equation is correctly balanced?

  • (1) H2(g) + O2(g) → H2O(g)
  • (2) N2(g) + H2(g) → NH3(g)
  • (3) 2NaCl(s) → Na(s) + Cl2(g)
  • (4) 2KCl(s) → 2K(s) + Cl2(g)
Answer: (4) 2KCl(s) → 2K(s) + Cl2(g) 

11. Compared to a calcium atom, the calcium ion Ca2+ has

  • (1) more protons
  • (2) fewer protons
  • (3) more electrons
  • (4) fewer electrons
Answer: (4) fewer electrons 

12. Which type of bond is found in sodium bromide?

  • (1) covalent
  • (2) hydrogen
  • (3) ionic
  • (4) metallic
Answer: (3) ionic 

13. Which substance can not be decomposed by ordinary chemical means?

  • (1) methane
  • (2) mercury
  • (3) ethanol
  • (4) ammonia
Answer: (2) mercury 

14. A mixture of crystals of salt and sugar is added to water and stirred until all solids have dissolved. Which statement best describes the resulting mixture?

  • (1) The mixture is homogeneous and can be separated by filtration.
  • (2) The mixture is homogeneous and cannot be separated by filtration.
  • (3) The mixture is heterogeneous and can be separated by filtration.
  • (4) The mixture is heterogeneous and cannot be separated by filtration.
Answer: (2) The mixture is homogeneous and cannot be separated by filtration. 

15. Under which conditions of temperature and pressure would a sample of H2(g) behave most like an ideal gas?

  • (1) 0°C and 100 kPa
  • (2) 0°C and 300 kPa
  • (3) 150°C and 100 kPa
  • (4) 150°C and 300 kPa
Answer: (3) 150°C and 100 kPa

16. In a chemical reaction, the difference between the potential energy of the products and the potential energy of the reactants is defined as the

  • (1) activation energy
  • (2) ionization energy
  • (3) heat of reaction
  • (4) heat of vaporization
Answer: (3) heat of reaction 

17. Which substance is an Arrhenius base?

  • (1) KCl
  • (2) CH3Cl
  • (3) KOH
  • (4) CH3OH
Answer: (3) KOH 

18. Given the balanced equation:

I2(s) + energy → I2(g)
As a sample of I2(s) sublimes to I2(g), the entropy of the sample

  • (1) increases because the particles are less randomly arranged
  • (2) increases because the particles are more randomly arranged
  • (3) decreases because the particles are less randomly arranged
  • (4) decreases because the particles are more randomly arranged
Answer: (2) increases because the particles are more randomly arranged 

19. The multiple covalent bond in a molecule of 1-butene is a

  • (1) double covalent bond that has 6 shared electrons
  • (2) double covalent bond that has 4 shared electrons
  • (3) triple covalent bond that has 6 shared electrons
  • (4) triple covalent bond that has 4 shared electrons
Answer: (2) double covalent bond that has 4 shared electrons 

20. In an oxidation-reduction reaction, reduction is defined as the

  • (1) loss of protons
  • (2) gain of protons
  • (3) loss of electrons
  • (4) gain of electrons
Answer: (4) gain of electrons 

21. What is the oxidation number assigned to manganese in KMnO4?

  • (1) +7
  • (2) +2
  • (3) +3
  • (4) +4
Answer: (1) +7 

22. Which of the following aqueous solutions is the best conductor of electricity?

  • (1) 0.10 M CH3OH
  • (2) 1.0 MCH3OH
  • (3) 0.10 M NaOH
  • (4) 1.0 M NaOH
Answer: (4) 1.0 M NaOH 

23. One acid-base theory states that an acid is

  • (1) an H– donor
  • (2) an H– acceptor
  • (3) an H+ donor
  • (4) an H+ acceptor
Answer: (3) an H+ donor 

24. Positrons are spontaneously emitted from the nuclei of

  • (1) potassium-37
  • (2) radium-226
  • (3) nitrogen-16
  • (4) thorium-232
Answer: (1) potassium-37  

25. The amount of energy released from a fission reaction is much greater than the energy released from a chemical reaction because in a fission reaction

  • (1) mass is converted into energy
  • (2) energy is converted into mass
  • (3) ionic bonds are broken
  • (4) covalent bonds are broken
Answer: (1) mass is converted into energy 

26. Which Lewis electron-dot diagram is correct for CO2?

Answer: (3)  

27. Types of nuclear reactions include fission, fusion, and

  • (1) single replacement
  • (2) neutralization
  • (3) oxidation-reduction
  • (4) transmutation
Answer: (4) transmutation 

28. Which structural formula is correct for 2-methyl-3-pentanol?

Answer: (2)  

Note that questions 29 and 30 have only three choices.

29. When an atom becomes a positive ion, the radius of the atom

  • (1) decreases
  • (2) increases
  • (3) remains the same
Answer: (1) decreases 

30. Compared to the freezing point of 1.0 M KCl(aq) at standard pressure, the freezing point of 1.0 M CaCl2(aq) at standard pressure is

  • (1) lower
  • (2) higher
  • (3) the same
Answer: (1) lower 

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