Earth Science January 2004

Earth Science January 2004 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
CHEMISTRY
Wednesday, January 28, 2004 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

1. A neutral atom contains 12 neutrons and 11 electrons. The number of protons in this atom is

  • (1) 1
  • (2) 11
  • (3) 12
  • (4) 23
Answer: (2) 11 

2. Isotopes of an element must have different

  • (1) atomic numbers
  • (2) mass numbers
  • (3) numbers of protons
  • (4) numbers of electrons
Answer: (2) mass numbers 

3. Which element is a noble gas?

  • (1) krypton
  • (2) chlorine
  • (3) antimony
  • (4) manganese
Answer: (1) krypton

4. On the present Periodic Table of the Elements, the elements are arranged according to increasing

  • (1) number of oxidation states
  • (2) number of neutrons
  • (3) atomic mass
  • (4) atomic number
Answer: (4) atomic number 

5. What is a property of most metals?

  • (1) They tend to gain electrons easily when bonding.
  • (2) They tend to lose electrons easily when bonding.
  • (3) They are poor conductors of heat.
  • (4) They are poor conductors of electricity.
Answer: (2) They tend to lose electrons easily when bonding. 

6. What is the correct formula for iron (III) phosphate?

  • (1) FeP
  • (2) Fe3P2
  • (3) FePO4
  • (4) Fe3(PO4)2
Answer: (3) FePO4 

7. The bond between Br atoms in a Br2 molecule is

  • (1) ionic and is formed by the sharing of two valence electrons
  • (2) ionic and is formed by the transfer of two valence electrons
  • (3) covalent and is formed by the sharing of two valence electrons
  • (4) covalent and is formed by the transfer of two valence electrons
Answer: (3) covalent and is formed by the sharing of two valence electrons 

8. The amount of energy required to remove the outermost electron from a gaseous atom in the ground state is known as

  • (1) first ionization energy
  • (2) activation energy
  • (3) conductivity
  • (4) electronegativity
Answer: (1) first ionization energy 

9. What occurs when an atom of chlorine and an atom of hydrogen become a molecule of hydrogen chloride?

  • (1) A chemical bond is broken and energy is released.
  • (2) A chemical bond is broken and energy is absorbed.
  • (3) A chemical bond is formed and energy is released.
  • (4) A chemical bond is formed and energy is absorbed.
Answer: (3) A chemical bond is formed and energy is released. 

10. Which molecule is nonpolar?

  • (1) H2O
  • (2) NH3
  • (3) CO
  • (4) CO2
Answer: (4) CO2 

11. Which must be a mixture of substances?

  • (1) solid
  • (2) liquid
  • (3) gas
  • (4) solution
Answer: (4) solution 

12. A bottle of rubbing alcohol contains both 2-propanol and water. These liquids can be separated by the process of distillation because the 2-propanol and water

  • (1) have combined chemically and retain their different boiling points
  • (2) have combined chemically and have the same boiling point
  • (3) have combined physically and retain their different boiling points
  • (4) have combined physically and have the same boiling point
Answer: (2) have combined chemically and have the same boiling point

13. Compared to pure water, an aqueous solution of calcium chloride has a

  • (1) higher boiling point and higher freezing point
  • (2) higher boiling point and lower freezing point
  • (3) lower boiling point and higher freezing point
  • (4) lower boiling point and lower freezing point
Answer: (3) lower boiling point and higher freezing point 

14. Under which conditions does a real gas behave most like an ideal gas?

  • (1) at low temperatures and high pressures
  • (2) at low temperatures and low pressures
  • (3) at high temperatures and high pressures
  • (4) at high temperatures and low pressures
Answer: (4) at high temperatures and low pressures 

15. What is the IUPAC name of the compound with the following structural formula?

  • (1) propanone
  • (2) propanal
  • (3) butanone
  • (4) butanal
Answer: (3) butanone 

16. Which statement best explains the role of a catalyst in a chemical reaction?

  • (1) A catalyst is added as an additional reactant and is consumed but not regenerated.
  • (2) A catalyst limits the amount of reactants used.
  • (3) A catalyst changes the kinds of products produced.
  • (4) A catalyst provides an alternate reaction pathway that requires less activation energy
Answer: (4) A catalyst provides an alternate reaction pathway that requires less activation energy 

17. Given the reaction at equilibrium:

H2(g) + Br2(g)↔ 2 HBr(g)

The rate of the forward reaction is

  • (1) greater than the rate of the reverse reaction
  • (2) less than the rate of the reverse reaction
  • (3) equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
  • (4) independent of the rate of the reverse reaction
Answer: (3) equal to the rate of the reverse reaction 

18. Which statement best explains why most atomic masses on the Periodic Table are decimal numbers?

  • (1) Atomic masses are determined relative to an H–1 standard.
  • (2) Atomic masses are determined relative to an O–16 standard.
  • (3) Atomic masses are a weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes.
  • (4) Atomic masses are an estimated average of the artificially produced isotopes.
Answer: (3) Atomic masses are a weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes. 

19. All organic compounds must contain the element

  • (1) phosphorus
  • (2) oxygen
  • (3) carbon
  • (4) nitrogen
Answer: (3) carbon 

20. Which of the following compounds has the highest boiling point?

  • (1) H2O
  • (2) H2S
  • (3) H2Se
  • (4) H2Te
Answer: (1) H2O 

21. The functional group —COOH is found in

  • (1) esters
  • (2) aldehydes
  • (3) alcohols
  • (4) organic acids
Answer: (4) organic acids

22. Which of these elements is the best conductor of electricity?

  • (1) S
  • (2) N
  • (3) Br
  • (4) Ni
Answer: (4) Ni 

23. Given the reaction:

2 Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) →heat Al2O3(s) + 2 Fe(s)

Which species undergoes reduction?

  • (1) Al
  • (2) Fe
  • (3) Al3+
  • (4) Fe3+
Answer: (4) Fe3+

24. Which energy transformation occurs when an electrolytic cell is in operation?

  • (1) chemical energy → electrical energy
  • (2) electrical energy → chemical energy
  • (3) light energy → heat energy
  • (4) light energy → chemical energy
Answer: (2) electrical energy → chemical energy 

25. Which of these pH numbers indicates the highest level of acidity?

  • (1) 5
  • (2) 8
  • (3) 10
  • (4) 12
Answer: (1) 5 

26. According to the Arrhenius theory, when a base dissolves in water it produces

  • (1) CO3 2- as the only negative ion in solution
  • (2) OH as the only negative ion in solution
  • (3) NH4 + as the only positive ion in solution
  • (4) H+ as the only positive ion in solution
Answer: (2) OH as the only negative ion in solution 

27. Which compound is an electrolyte?

  • (1) C6H12O6
  • (2) CH3OH
  • (3) CaCl2
  • (4) CCl4
Answer: (3) CaCl2 

28. Which equation represents a spontaneous nuclear decay?

Answer: (4)  

29. The stability of an isotope is based on its

  • (1) number of neutrons, only
  • (2) number of protons, only
  • (3) ratio of neutrons to protons
  • (4) ratio of electrons to protons
Answer: (3) ratio of neutrons to protons 

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