Earth Science January 2003

Earth Science January 2003 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
CHEMISTRY
Wednesday, January 29, 2003 — 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

1. Which statement best describes electrons?

  • (1) They are positive subatomic particles and are found in the nucleus.
  • (2) They are positive subatomic particles and are found surrounding the nucleus.
  • (3) They are negative subatomic particles and are found in the nucleus.
  • (4) They are negative subatomic particles and are found surrounding the nucleus.
Answer: (4) They are negative subatomic particles and are found surrounding the nucleus. 

2. During a flame test, ions of a specific metal are heated in the flame of a gas burner. A characteristic color of light is emitted by these ions in the flame when the electrons

  • (1) gain energy as they return to lower energylevels
  • (2) gain energy as they move to higher energylevels
  • (3) emit energy as they return to lower energylevels
  • (4) emit energy as they move to higher energylevels
Answer: (3) emit energy as they return to lower energylevels 

3. In which list are the elements arranged in order of increasing atomic mass?

  • (1) Cl, K, Ar
  • (2) Fe, Co, Ni
  • (3) Te, I, Xe
  • (4) Ne, F, Na
Answer: (1) Cl, K, Ar  

4. In which compound does chlorine have the highest oxidation number?

  • (1) NaClO
  • (2) NaClO2
  • (3) NaClO3
  • (4) NaClO4
Answer: (4) NaClO4 

5. Which event must always occur for a chemical reaction to take place?

  • (1) formation of a precipitate
  • (2) formation of a gas
  • (3) effective collisions between reacting particles
  • (4) addition of a catalyst to the reaction system
Answer: (3) effective collisions between reacting particles 

6. Which Group of the Periodic Table contains atoms with a stable outer electron configuration?

  • (1) 1
  • (2) 8
  • (3) 16
  • (4) 18
Answer: (4) 18 

7. From which of these atoms in the ground state can a valence electron be removed using the least amount of energy?

  • (1) nitrogen
  • (2) carbon
  • (3) oxygen
  • (4) chlorine
Answer: (2) carbon 

8. What is the percent by mass of oxygen in H2SO4? [formula mass = 98]

  • (1) 16%
  • (2) 33%
  • (3) 65%
  • (4) 98%
Answer: (3) 65% 

9. An atom of carbon-12 and an atom of carbon-14 differ in

  • (1) atomic number
  • (2) mass number
  • (3) nuclear charge
  • (4) number of electrons
Answer: (2) mass number 

10. The strength of an atom’s attraction for the electrons in a chemical bond is the atom’s

  • (1) electronegativity
  • (2) ionization energy
  • (3) heat of reaction
  • (4) heat of formation
Answer: (1) electronegativity 

11. Which type or types of change, if any, can reach equilibrium?

  • (1) a chemical change, only
  • (2) a physical change, only
  • (3) both a chemical and a physical change
  • (4) neither a chemical nor a physical change
Answer: (3) both a chemical and a physical change 

12. An increase in the average kinetic energy of a sample of copper atoms occurs with an increase in

  • (1) concentration
  • (2) temperature
  • (3) pressure
  • (4) volume
Answer: (2) temperature 

13. The empirical formula of a compound is CH2. Which molecular formula is correctly paired with a structural formula for this compound?

Answer: (2)  

14. Given the equation:

This equation represents the formation of a

  • (1) fluoride ion, which is smaller in radius than a fluorine atom
  • (2) fluoride ion, which is larger in radius than a fluorine atom
  • (3) fluorine atom, which is smaller in radius than a fluoride ion
  • (4) fluorine atom, which is larger is radius than a fluoride ion
Answer: (2) fluoride ion, which is larger in radius than a fluorine atom 

15. The high electrical conductivity of metals is primarily due to

  • (1) high ionization energies
  • (2) filled energy levels
  • (3) mobile electrons
  • (4) high electronegativities
Answer: (3) mobile electrons 

16. One similarity between all mixtures and compounds is that both

  • (1) are heterogeneous
  • (2) are homogeneous
  • (3) combine in a definite ratio
  • (4) consist of two or more substances
Answer: (4) consist of two or more substances 

17. Which phase change results in the release of energy?

  • (1) H2O(s) → H2O()
  • (2) H2O(s) → H2O(g)
  • (3) H2O() → H2O(g)
  • (4) H2O(g) → H2O()
Answer: (4) H2O(g) → H2O() 

18. Which compound has an isomer?

Answer: (4)  

19. What occurs when NaCl(s) is added to water?

  • (1) The boiling point of the solution increases, and the freezing point of the solution decreases.
  • (2) The boiling point of the solution increases, and the freezing point of the solution increases.
  • (3) The boiling point of the solution decreases, and the freezing point of the solution decreases.
  • (4) The boiling point of the solution decreases, and the freezing point of the solution increases.
Answer: (1) The boiling point of the solution increases, and the freezing point of the solution decreases. 

20. Which radioisotope is a beta emitter?

  • (1) 90Sr
  • (2) 220Fr
  • (3) 37K
  • (4) 238U
Answer: (1) 90Sr 

21. When a mixture of water, sand, and salt is filtered, what passes through the filter paper?

  • (1) water, only
  • (2) water and sand, only
  • (3) water and salt, only
  • (4) water, sand, and salt
Answer: (3) water and salt, only 

22. A hydrate is a compound that includes water molecules within its crystal structure. During an experiment to determine the percent by mass of water in a hydrated crystal, a student found the mass of the hydrated crystal to be 4.10 grams. After heating to constant mass, the mass was 3.70 grams. What is the percent by mass of water in this crystal?

  • (1) 90.%
  • (2) 11%
  • (3) 9.8%
  • (4) 0.40%
Answer: (3) 9.8%

23. Which of these 1 M solutions will have the highest pH?

  • (1) NaOH
  • (2) CH3OH
  • (3) HCl
  • (4) NaCl
Answer: (1) NaOH  

24. Which physical property makes it possible to separate the components of crude oil by means of distillation?

  • (1) melting point
  • (2) conductivity
  • (3) solubility
  • (4) boiling point
Answer: (4) boiling point 

25. In saturated hydrocarbons, carbon atoms are bonded to each other by

  • (1) single covalent bonds, only
  • (2) double covalent bonds, only
  • (3) alternating single and double covalent bonds
  • (4) alternating double and triple covalent bonds
Answer: (1) single covalent bonds, only 

26. Which formula correctly represents the product of an addition reaction between ethene and chlorine?

  • (1) CH2Cl2
  • (2) CH3Cl
  • (3) C2H4Cl2
  • (4) C2H3Cl
Answer: (3) C2H4Cl2 

27. When a neutral atom undergoes oxidation, the atom’s oxidation state

  • (1) decreases as it gains electrons
  • (2) decreases as it loses electrons
  • (3) increases as it gains electrons
  • (4) increases as it loses electrons
Answer: (4) increases as it loses electrons 

28. Given the equation:

C(s) + H2O(g) → CO(g) + H2(g)

Which species undergoes reduction?

  • (1) C(s)
  • (2) H+
  • (3) C2+
  • (4) H2(g)
Answer: (2) H+ 

29. Which equation is an example of artificial transmutation?

Answer: (1)  

30. Which species can conduct an electric current?

  • (1) NaOH(s)
  • (2) CH3OH(aq)
  • (3) H2O(s)
  • (4) HCl(aq)
Answer: (4) HCl(aq) 

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