Earth Science August 2016

Earth Science August 2016 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Physical setting
Earth science
Thursday, August 18, 2016 — 8:30 to 11:30 a.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. Compared to the Sun, the star Betelgeuse is

  • (1) less luminous and warmer
  • (2) less luminous and cooler
  • (3) more luminous and warmer
  • (4) more luminous and cooler
Answer: (4) more luminous and cooler 

2. Which evidence best supports scientists’ inferences about the origin and age of the universe?

  • (1) the existence of planets
  • (2) cosmic background radiation
  • (3) formation of star constellations
  • (4) similar composition of Earth and the Moon
Answer: (2) cosmic background radiation 

3. Earth’s planetary winds curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere due to

  • (1) the Coriolis effect
  • (2) the Doppler effect
  • (3) the tilt of Earth’s axis
  • (4) Earth’s gravity
Answer: (1) The Coriolis effect 

4. Which process releases 334 Joules (J) of energy for each gram of water?

  • (1) melting
  • (2) freezing
  • (3) vaporization
  • (4) condensation
Answer: (2) freezing 

5. After a heavy rainstorm, vegetation on a hillslope was completely removed. How will this removal of vegetation affect the relative amounts of infi ltration and runoff that occur during the next heavy rainstorm?

  • (1) Infi ltration and runoff will both be less.
  • (2) Infi ltration and runoff will both be greater.
  • (3) Infi ltration will be less and runoff will be greater.
  • (4) Infi ltration will be greater and runoff will be less.
Answer: (3) Infi ltration will be less and runoff will be greater 

6. Hurricane season in the North Atlantic Ocean offi cially begins in June and ends in November. Which ocean surface conditions are responsible for the development of hurricanes?

  • (1) warm water temperatures and low evaporation rates
  • (2) warm water temperatures and high evaporation rates
  • (3) cool water temperatures and low evaporation rates
  • (4) cool water temperatures and high evaporation rates
Answer: (2) warm water temperatures and high evaporation rates 

7. The seasonal shifts of Earth’s planetary wind and moisture belts are due to changes in the

  • (1) distance between Earth and the Sun
  • (2) amount of energy given off by the Sun
  • (3) latitude that receives the Sun’s vertical rays
  • (4) rate of Earth’s rotation on its axis
Answer: (3) latitude that receives the Sun’s vertical rays 

8. Which condition will most likely result in the formation of a cloud?

  • (1) wind speed decreasing
  • (2) air pressure increasing
  • (3) cool, moist air sinking
  • (4) warm, moist air rising
Answer: (4) warm, moist air rising 

9. Which climate condition generally results from both an increase in distance from the equator and an increase in elevation above sea level?

  • (1) cooler temperatures
  • (2) warmer prevailing winds
  • (3) increased precipitation
  • (4) increased air pressure
Answer: (1) cooler temperatures 

10. Most of which type of electromagnetic radiation is given off by Earth’s surface at night?

  • (1) gamma rays
  • (2) ultraviolet light
  • (3) visible light
  • (4) infrared rays
Answer: (4) infrared rays 

11. Large volcanic eruptions sometimes send dust and ash into the stratosphere. After these eruptions, global air temperatures are often

  • (1) cooler than normal because the atmosphere is less transparent
  • (2) cooler than normal because the atmosphere is more transparent
  • (3) warmer than normal because the atmosphere is less transparent
  • (4) warmer than normal because the atmosphere is more transparent
Answer: (1) cooler than normal because the atmosphere is less transparent 

12. Which list contains three major greenhouse gases found in Earth’s atmosphere?

  • (1) carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor
  • (2) carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen
  • (3) hydrogen, oxygen, and methane
  • (4) hydrogen, water vapor, and nitrogen
Answer: (1) carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor 

13. During which geologic epoch does the New York State rock record consist of weakly consolidated to unconsolidated sediments?

  • (1) Early Permian
  • (2) Early Jurassic
  • (3) Late Cretaceous
  • (4) Pliocene
Answer: (3) Late Cretaceous 

14. The New York State index fossil Valcouroceras is classifi ed as a

  • (1) coral
  • (2) crinoid
  • (3) eurypterid
  • (4) nautiloid
Answer: (4) nautiloid 

15. The convection currents responsible for moving tectonic plates occur in which Earth layer?

  • (1) crust
  • (2) rigid mantle
  • (3) stiffer mantle
  • (4) asthenosphere
Answer: (4) asthenosphere 

16. The map below shows the inferred shape of the North American landmass in the past. The location of Florida is labeled.

Which event was occurring on Earth when Florida was located at the equator?

  • (1) The dome-like uplift of the Adirondack region began.
  • (2) The earliest dinosaurs appeared on Earth.
  • (3) Oceanic oxygen began to enter the atmosphere.
  • (4) Earth’s fi rst coral reefs were forming.
Answer: (2) The earliest dinosaurs appeared on Earth 

17. Which geologic feature is composed of the youngest crustal bedrock?

  • (1) Peru-Chile Trench
  • (2) Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  • (3) Adirondack Mountains
  • (4) San Andreas Fault
Answer: (2) Mid-Atlantic Ridge 

18. If a seismic station is 3200 km from an earthquake epicenter, what is the time needed for an S-wave to travel from the epicenter to the seismic station?

  • (1) 4 min 40 sec
  • (2) 6 min 0 sec
  • (3) 10 min 40 sec
  • (4) 11 min 10 sec
Answer: (3) 10 min 40 sec 

19. The photograph below shows a steep-sided rock formation that is over 100 meters high. This landscape feature is located in an arid region.

What would happen to this landscape feature if the climate became more humid?

  • (1) less weathering and erosion, producing a more rounded landscape feature
  • (2) less weathering and erosion, producing a more angular landscape feature
  • (3) more weathering and erosion, producing a more rounded landscape feature
  • (4) more weathering and erosion, producing a more angular landscape feature
Answer: (3) more weathering and erosion, producing a more rounded landscape feature 

20. The photograph below shows an igneous rock with mineral crystals ranging in size from 2 to 6 millimeters. The rock is composed of 58% plagioclase feldspar, 26% amphibole, and 16% biotite.

What is the name of this rock?

  • (1) diorite
  • (2) gabbro
  • (3) andesite
  • (4) pumice
Answer: (1) diorite 

21. The contour map below shows a lake and river system. The Birch and Elk Rivers carry an equal volume of water.

Compared to the Elk River, the Birch River can best be described as fl owing

  • (1) faster, and in the same general compass direction
  • (2) faster, and in the opposite general compass direction
  • (3) slower, and in the same general compass direction
  • (4) slower, and in the opposite general compass direction
Answer: (1) faster, and in the same general compass direction 

22. Which rock would be the best source of the mineral garnet?

  • (1) basalt
  • (2) limestone
  • (3) schist
  • (4) slate
Answer: (3) schist 

23. The topographic map below shows three drumlins located in New York State.

What was the direction of the advancing ice movement that created these drumlins, and what is the most likely arrangement of sediments in the drumlins?

  • (1) north to south ice movement, and unsorted sediments
  • (2) north to south ice movement, and sorted sediments
  • (3) south to north ice movement, and unsorted sediments
  • (4) south to north ice movement, and sorted sediments
Answer: (1) north to south ice movement, and unsorted sediments 

24. The diagram below represents Earth as viewed from space. Letter A represents the approximate angle of tilt between Earth’s rotational axis and a line (XY) perpendicular to the plane of Earth’s orbit.

What is the value of the angle represented by letter A?

  • (1) 15.0°
  • (2) 23.5°
  • (3) 24.5°
  • (4) 30.0°
Answer: (2) 23.5° 

25. What are the rock name and map symbol used to represent the sedimentary rock that has a grain size of 0.006 to 0.2 centimeters?

Answer: (4)  

26. The graph below shows ocean tide height in feet (ft) over a 44-hour period for a coastal location in the northeastern United States. The dots represent either high or low tides.

If the pattern shown continued, the next low tide occurred on Day 3 at approximately

  • (1) 12 midnight
  • (2) 1:30 a.m.
  • (3) 1:00 p.m.
  • (4) 6:00 p.m.
Answer: (2) 1:30 a.m. 

27. The cross sections below represent three bedrock outcrops found several kilometers apart.

Which statement best explains why the volcanic ash layers are useful for correlating the relative ages of the bedrock in the three outcrops?

  • (1) The ash was deposited over a large area when a volcano erupted.
  • (2) There are no fossils found within the volcanic ash.
  • (3) The volcanic eruptions that produced the ash layer occurred over a long period of geologic time.
  • (4) The volcanic ash is found between many different layers of bedrock.
Answer: (1) The ash was deposited over a large area when a volcano erupted 

28. The diagram below represents the interiors of three planets in our solar system.

Which inference best describes the interiors of the planets in our solar system?

  • (1) Both terrestrial and Jovian planets have layered interiors, with density decreasing toward the center.
  • (2) Both terrestrial and Jovian planets have layered interiors, with density increasing toward the center.
  • (3) Only terrestrial planets have layered interiors, with density decreasing toward the center.
  • (4) Only Jovian planets have layered interiors, with density increasing toward the center.
Answer: (2) Both terrestrial and Jovian planets have layered interiors, with density increasing toward the center 

29. Which device provides evidence that Earth rotates on its axis?

Answer: (3)  

30. Which weather map symbol is used to represent violently rotating winds that have the appearance of a funnel-shaped cloud?

Answer: (3)  

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