Earth Science August 2015

Earth Science August 2015 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Physical setting
Earth science
Thursday, August 13, 2015 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. Which characteristics best describe the star Betelgeuse?

  • (1) reddish orange with low luminosity and high surface temperature
  • (2) reddish orange with high luminosity and low surface temperature
  • (3) blue white with low luminosity and low surface temperature
  • (4) blue white with high luminosity and high surface temperature
Answer: (2) reddish orange with high luminosity and low surface temperature 

2. Which motion occurs at a rate of approximately one degree per day?

  • (1) the Moon revolving around Earth
  • (2) the Moon rotating on its axis
  • (3) Earth revolving around the Sun
  • (4) Earth rotating on its axis
Answer: (3) Earth revolving around the Sun 

3. If the tilt of Earth’s axis were increased from 23.5° to 30°, summers in New York State would become

  • (1) cooler, and winters would become cooler
  • (2) cooler, and winters would become warmer
  • (3) warmer, and winters would become cooler
  • (4) warmer, and winters would become warmer
Answer: (3) warmer, and winters would become cooler 

4. Which object in space emits light because it releases energy produced by nuclear fusion?

  • (1) Earth’s Moon
  • (2) Halley’s comet
  • (3) Venus
  • (4) Polaris
Answer: (4) Polaris 

5. Since Denver’s longitude is 105° W and Utica’s longitude is 75° W, sunrise in Denver occurs

  • (1) 2 hours earlier
  • (2) 2 hours later
  • (3) 3 hours earlier
  • (4) 3 hours later
Answer: (2) 2 hours later 

6. A major piece of evidence supporting the Big Bang theory is the observation that wavelengths of light from stars in distant galaxies show a

  • (1) redshift, appearing to be shorter
  • (2) redshift, appearing to be longer
  • (3) blueshift, appearing to be shorter
  • (4) blueshift, appearing to be longer
Answer: (2) redshift, appearing to be longer 

7. During the month of January, at which location in New York State is the Sun lowest in the sky at solar noon?

  • (1) Massena
  • (2) Niagara Falls
  • (3) Utica
  • (4) New York City
Answer: (1) Massena 

8. Which process releases 2260 joules of heat energy per gram of water into the environment?

  • (1) melting
  • (2) freezing
  • (3) condensation
  • (4) evaporation
Answer: (3) condensation 

9. When snow cover on the land melts, the water will most likely become surface runoff if the land surface is

  • (1) frozen
  • (2) porous
  • (3) grass covered
  • (4) unconsolidated gravel
Answer: (1) frozen 

10. Which area is the most common source region for cold, dry air masses that move over New York State?

  • (1) North Atlantic Ocean
  • (2) Gulf of Mexico
  • (3) central Canada
  • (4) central Mexico
Answer: (3) central Canada 

11. The map below shows a portion of the Hudson River and three tributaries: Catskill Creek, Fishkill Creek, and Wallkill River.

The greatest discharge of the Hudson River is generally observed near

  • (1) Albany
  • (2) Kingston
  • (3) Poughkeepsie
  • (4) Ossining
Answer: (4) Ossining 

12. Which station model represents a location that has the greatest chance of precipitation?

Answer: (2)  

13. The Adirondacks are classified as mountains because of the high elevation and bedrock that consists mainly of

  • (1) deformed and intensely metamorphosed rocks
  • (2) glacial deposits of unconsolidated gravels, sands, and clays
  • (3) Cambrian and Ordovician quartzites and marbles
  • (4) horizontal sedimentary rocks of marine origin
Answer: (1) deformed and intensely metamorphosed rocks 

14. In which landscape region are New York State’s Finger Lakes primarily located?

  • (1) Adirondack Mountains
  • (2) Allegheny Plateau
  • (3) Atlantic Coastal Plain
  • (4) Erie-Ontario Lowlands
Answer: (2) Allegheny Plateau 

15. What is the range of pressure in Earth’s interior where rock with a density range of 9.9 to 12.2 g/cm3 is found?

  • (1) 0.2 to 1.4 million atmospheres
  • (2) 0.8 to 2.3 million atmospheres
  • (3) 1.4 to 3.1 million atmospheres
  • (4) 2.3 to 3.5 million atmospheres
Answer: (3) 1.4 to 3.1 million atmospheres 

16. Earth’s magnetic field has reversed itself several times during the past. This pattern of magnetic reversal is best preserved in

  • (1) metamorphic bedrock in mountain ranges
  • (2) bedrock with fossils containing radioactive carbon-14
  • (3) layers of sedimentary bedrock of the Grand Canyon
  • (4) igneous bedrock of the oceanic crust
Answer: (4) igneous bedrock of the oceanic crust 

17. Which two features are commonly found at divergent plate boundaries?

  • (1) mid-ocean ridges and rift valleys
  • (2) wide valleys and deltas
  • (3) ocean trenches and subduction zones
  • (4) hot spots and island arcs
Answer: (1) mid-ocean ridges and rift valleys 

18. New York State bedrock of which age contains salt, gypsum, and hematite?

  • (1) Cambrian
  • (2) Devonian
  • (3) Mississippian
  • (4) Silurian
Answer: (4) Silurian 

19. Scientists infer that oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere did not exist in large quantities until after

  • (1) the first multicellular, soft-bodied marine organisms appeared on Earth
  • (2) the initial opening of the Atlantic Ocean
  • (3) the first sexually reproducing organisms appeared on Earth
  • (4) photosynthetic cyanobacteria evolved in Earth’s oceans
Answer: (4) photosynthetic cyanobacteria evolved in Earth’s oceans 

20. Which organisms were alive when New York State was last covered by a continental ice sheet?

  • (1) Eurypterus and Cooksonia
  • (2) Aneurophyton and Naples Tree
  • (3) mastodont and Beluga whale
  • (4) Coelophysis and Elliptocephala
Answer: (3) mastodont and Beluga whale 

21. One difference between a breccia rock and a conglomerate rock is that the particles in a breccia rock are

  • (1) more aligned
  • (2) more angular
  • (3) harder
  • (4) land derived
Answer: (2) more angular 

22. The photograph below shows rock layers separated by unconformity XY.

Which sequence of events most likely produced this unconformity?

  • (1) uplift and erosion of bedrock, followed by subsidence and more deposition
  • (2) intrusion of magma into preexisting rock, causing contact metamorphism
  • (3) eruption of a volcano, spreading lava over horizontal sedimentary rock layers
  • (4) separation of one rock layer, by movement along a plate boundary
Answer: (1) uplift and erosion of bedrock, followed by subsidence and more deposition 

23. The igneous rock gabbro most likely formed from molten material that cooled

  • (1) rapidly at Earth’s surface
  • (2) slowly at Earth’s surface
  • (3) rapidly, deep underground
  • (4) slowly, deep underground
Answer: (4) slowly, deep underground 

24. Which statement best supports the inference that most of Earth’s present-day land surfaces have, at one time, been covered by water?

  • (1) Volcanic eruptions contain large amounts of water vapor.
  • (2) Coral reefs formed, in the past, along the edges of many continents.
  • (3) Seafloor spreading has pulled landmasses apart and pushed them together.
  • (4) Sedimentary bedrock of marine origin covers large areas of Earth’s continents.
Answer: (4) Sedimentary bedrock of marine origin covers large areas of Earth’s continents. 

25. Which diagram best represents the correct orientation of the North Pole [NP] as Earth revolves around the Sun? [Diagrams are not drawn to scale.]

Answer: (2)  

26. Which diagram best represents how greenhouse gases in our atmosphere trap heat energy?

Answer: (1)  

27. The symbols below represent two planets.

Which combination of planet masses and distances produces the greatest gravitational force between the planets?

Answer: (3)  

28. The diagram below represents the circulation of air above Earth’s surface at a coastal location during the day and at night.

This local air movement is best described as an example of

  • (1) conduction between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere above it
  • (2) condensation of water vapor during the day, and evaporation of water during the night
  • (3) convection resulting from temperature and pressure differences above land and water
  • (4) greater radiation from the warmer ocean during the day and from the warmer land at night
Answer: (3) convection resulting from temperature and pressure differences above land and water 

29. A change in the type and location of large high-pressure systems (H) and large low-pressure systems (L) over Asia creates shifts in prevailing winds that cause a rainy summer season and a dry winter season in southern Asia. Which set of maps below best represents the type and location of pressure systems and the wind pattern around these pressure systems that cause these seasonal changes?

Answer: (4)  

30. The photograph below shows both erosional and depositional features formed by an agent of erosion.

Which agent of erosion produced the features shown in the photograph?

  • (1) running water
  • (2) glacial ice
  • (3) ocean waves
  • (4) prevailing wind
Answer: (2) Glacial ice 

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