Earth Science August 2013

Earth Science August 2013 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
Regents high school examination
Physical setting
Earth science
Wednesday, August 14, 2013 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. Which two characteristics do all Jovian planets have in common?

  • (1) small diameters and low densities
  • (2) small diameters and high densities
  • (3) large diameters and low densities
  • (4) large diameters and high densities
Answer: (3) large diameters and low densities 

2. Which event occurred approximately 4.6 billion years ago?

  • (1) evolution of the earliest fish
  • (2) evolution of stromatolites
  • (3) formation of the oldest known Earth rocks
  • (4) formation of Earth and our solar system
Answer: (4) formation of Earth and our solar system 

3. Which process combines lighter elements into heavier elements and produces energy within the Sun and other stars?

  • (1) fusion
  • (2) insolation
  • (3) conduction
  • (4) radioactive decay
Answer: (1) fusion 

4. Which evidence best supports the Big Bang theory?

  • (1) rate of rotation of the Sun
  • (2) existence of cosmic background radiation
  • (3) uniform radioactive decay of uranium-238
  • (4) separation of Earth’s interior into different layers
Answer: (2) existence of cosmic background radiation 

5. Which star has a surface temperature most similar to the surface temperature of Alpha Centauri?

  • (1) Polaris
  • (2) Betelgeuse
  • (3) Procyon B
  • (4) Sirius
Answer: (1) Polaris 

6. The red shift of light from most galaxies is evidence that

  • (1) most galaxies are moving away from Earth
  • (2) a majority of stars in most galaxies are red giants
  • (3) the light slows down as it nears Earth
  • (4) red light travels faster than other colors of light
Answer: (1) most galaxies are moving away from Earth 

7. Which motion causes some constellations to be visible in New York State only during winter nights and other constellations to be visible only during summer nights?

  • (1) Stars in constellations revolve around Earth.
  • (2) Stars in constellations revolve around the Sun.
  • (3) Earth revolves around the Sun.
  • (4) Earth rotates on its axis.
Answer: (3) Earth revolves around the Sun. 

8. Sediment samples A through D below have the same volume and packing, but contain different percentages of various particle sizes. Sample A: 75% clay and 25% silt Sample B: 25% clay and 75% sand Sample C: 50% pebbles and 50% sand Sample D: 50% pebbles and 50% cobbles Which sample most likely has the greatest permeability?

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (4) D 

9. Most of Earth’s weather events take place in the

  • (1) thermosphere
  • (2) mesosphere
  • (3) stratosphere
  • (4) troposphere
Answer: (4) troposphere 

10. The diagram below represents a weather instrument.

Which weather variable was this instrument designed to measure?

  • (1) air pressure
  • (2) dewpoint
  • (3) relative humidity
  • (4) amount of precipitation
Answer: (1) air pressure 

11. Jet stream winds over the United States generally move from

  • (1) east to west
  • (2) west to east
  • (3) north to south
  • (4) south to north
Answer: (2) west to east 

12. What is the dewpoint when the dry-bulb temperature is 8°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 2°C?

  • (1) 28°C
  • (2) 6°C
  • (3) 3°C
  • (4) 9°C
Answer: (4) 9°C 

13. The cross section below represents prevailing winds moving over a coastal mountain range. Letters A through D represent locations on Earth’s surface.

Which location will most likely have the least annual precipitation?

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (4) D 

14. Which transfer of energy occurs mainly through the process of convection?

  • (1) electromagnetic energy transferred from the Sun to the Moon
  • (2) solar energy transferred through space to Earth’s surface
  • (3) heated air in the lower atmosphere transferred upward by density differences
  • (4) heat from radioactive decay transferred by molecular collisions to surrounding mantle rock
Answer: (3) heated air in the lower atmosphere transferred upward by density differences 

15. In which planetary wind belt do most storms move toward the northeast?

  • (1) 30° N to 60° N
  • (2) 0° to 30° N
  • (3) 0° to 30° S
  • (4) 30° S to 60° S
Answer: (1) 30° N to 60° N 

16. What is the inferred pressure, in millions of atmospheres, in Earth’s interior at a depth of 2900 kilometers?

  • (1) 1.4
  • (2) 9.9
  • (3) 3.0
  • (4) 4900
Answer: (1) 1.4 

17. Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is

  • (1) less dense and more basaltic
  • (2) less dense and more felsic
  • (3) more dense and more granitic
  • (4) more dense and more mafic
Answer: (2) less dense and more felsic 

18. Which landmass is moving northward with Australia as part of the same tectonic plate?

  • (1) India
  • (2) Antarctica
  • (3) North America
  • (4) South America
Answer: (1) India 

19. The epicenter of an earthquake is located 6500 kilometers away from a seismic station. If the first S-wave arrived at this seismic station at 1:30 p.m., at what time did the first P-wave arrive?

  • (1) 1:20 p.m.
  • (2) 1:22 p.m.
  • (3) 1:38 p.m.
  • (4) 1:40 p.m.
Answer: (2) 1:22 p.m. 

20. Which two cities are located in the Interior Lowlands?

  • (1) Elmira and Binghamton
  • (2) Riverhead and New York City
  • (3) Massena and Old Forge
  • (4) Buffalo and Watertown
Answer: (4) Buffalo and Watertown 

21. The large waterfall at Niagara Falls, New York, was originally located at the Niagara Escarpment. Which term best describes an escarpment?

  • (1) U-shaped valley
  • (2) V-shaped valley
  • (3) cliff
  • (4) drumlin
Answer: (3) cliff 

22. Trees growing on the edge of a river’s meander are most likely to fall into the river due to

  • (1) deposition on the inside of the meander
  • (2) deposition on the outside of the meander
  • (3) erosion on the inside of the meander
  • (4) erosion on the outside of the meander
Answer: (4) erosion on the outside of the meander 

23. What is the approximate minimum stream velocity needed to keep a 6.4-cm-diameter particle in motion?

  • (1) 10 cm/s
  • (2) 50 cm/s
  • (3) 100 cm/s
  • (4) 200 cm/s
Answer: (4) 200 cm/s 

24. The photograph below shows a sandstone butte in an arid region.

Which agents of erosion are currently changing the appearance of this butte?

  • (1) glaciers and mass movement
  • (2) wave action and running water
  • (3) wind and mass movement
  • (4) running water and glaciers
Answer: (3) wind and mass movement 

25. Sediment is deposited in a river delta because the

  • (1) velocity of the river decreases
  • (2) force of gravity decreases
  • (3) volume of the river increases
  • (4) gradient of the river increases
Answer: (1) velocity of the river decreases 

26. Which processes lead directly to the formation of igneous rock?

  • (1) weathering and erosion
  • (2) compaction and cementation
  • (3) heat and pressure
  • (4) melting and solidification
Answer: (4) melting and solidification 

27. A graph of tidal sea-level changes at a coastal city is shown below.

The number of hours from one high tide to the next high tide is approximately

  • (1) 4 h
  • (2) 8 h
  • (3) 12 h
  • (4) 24 h
Answer: (3) 12 h 

28. The diagram below represents planets A and B, of equal mass, revolving around a star.

Compared to planet A, planet B has a

  • (1) weaker gravitational attraction to the star and a shorter period of revolution
  • (2) weaker gravitational attraction to the star and a longer period of revolution
  • (3) stronger gravitational attraction to the star and a shorter period of revolution
  • (4) stronger gravitational attraction to the star and a longer period of revolution
Answer: (2) weaker gravitational attraction to the star and a longer period of revolution 

29. The arrow on the map below represents the direction a wind is blowing over a land surface in the Northern Hemisphere without showing the Coriolis effect.

Which dashed arrow represents how the wind direction will change in the Northern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect?

Answer: (2)

30. The map below shows a portion of the Middle East. Points A, B, C, D, and X are locations on Earth’s surface.

When it is 10:00 a.m. solar time at location X, at which location is 11:00 a.m. solar time being observed?

  • (1) A
  • (2) B
  • (3) C
  • (4) D
Answer: (4) D 

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