Earth Science August 2011

Earth Science August 2011 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
EARTH SCIENCE
Thursday, August 18, 2011 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2010 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1. The diagram below shows the orbital paths of Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and a comet named Wild 2.

What is the approximate distance between the Sun and Wild 2 when this comet is closest to the Sun?

  • (1) 150 million kilometers
  • (2) 228 million kilometers
  • (3) 778 million kilometers
  • (4) 820 million kilometers
Answer: (1) 228 million kilometers 

2. The Sun revolves around the center of

  • (1) Polaris
  • (2) Aldebaran
  • (3) Earth
  • (4) the Milky Way Galaxy
Answer: (4) The Milky Way Galaxy 

3. Which motion is responsible for the regular seasonal changes of the constellations visible in the night sky?

  • (1) The stars orbit Earth.
  • (2) The stars orbit the Sun.
  • (3) The Moon orbits Earth.
  • (4) Earth orbits the Sun.
Answer: (4) Earth orbits the Sun. 

4. What evidence suggests that a mass extinction of the dinosaurs occurred at the end of the Cretaceous Period?

  • (1) an absence of dinosaur fossils in Paleocene bedrock
  • (2) drawings of dinosaurs made by humans in caves during the Paleocene Epoch
  • (3) an abundance of dinosaur fossils in Early Cretaceous bedrock
  • (4) evolution of dinosaurs during the Late Cretaceous Epoch
Answer: (1) an absence of dinosaur fossils in Paleocene bedrock 

5. Compared to Jovian planets, terrestrial planets have

  • (1) larger masses
  • (2) larger equatorial diameters
  • (3) shorter periods of revolution
  • (4) shorter periods of rotation
Answer: (3) shorter periods of revolution 

6. The motion of a Foucault pendulum provides evidence that Earth

  • (1) varies in distance from the Sun
  • (2) is tilted on its axis
  • (3) spins on its axis
  • (4) travels around the Sun
Answer: (3) spins on its axis 

7. In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds deflect to the

  • (1) right, due to the Coriolis effect
  • (2) right, due to the Doppler effect
  • (3) left, due to the Coriolis effect
  • (4) left, due to the Doppler effect
Answer: (1) right, due to the Coriolis effect 

8. Which air mass is associated with low relative humidity and high air temperature?

  • (1) maritime polar
  • (2) maritime tropical
  • (3) continental polar
  • (4) continental tropical
Answer: (4) continental tropical 

9. The arrows in the block diagram below show the movement of water after it has fallen as precipitation.

Which arrow indicates the process of transpiration?

  • (1) 1
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 3
  • (4) 4
Answer: (1) 2 

10. What are the dewpoint and wind direction shown on the station model below?

  • (1) 72°F and wind from the northeast
  • (2) 72°F and wind from the southeast
  • (3) 74°F and wind from the northwest
  • (4) 74°F and wind from the southwest
Answer: (2) 72°F and wind from the southeast 

11. Most of the air in the lower troposphere at the equatorial low-pressure belt is

  • (1) warm, moist, and rising
  • (2) warm, dry, and rising
  • (3) cool, moist, and sinking
  • (4) cool, dry, and sinking
Answer: (1) warm, moist, and rising 

12. The diagram below shows dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature readings for a parcel of air.

What is the dewpoint of the air?

  • (1) 27°C
  • (2) 10°C
  • (3) 3°C
  • (4) –5°C
Answer: (3) 3°C 

13. Which atmospheric temperature zone is located between 8 and 32 miles above Earth’s surface and contains an abundance of ozone?

  • (1) troposphere
  • (2) stratosphere
  • (3) mesosphere
  • (4) thermosphere
Answer: (2) stratosphere 

14. Which natural event temporarily slows or reverses surface ocean currents in the equatorial region of the Pacific Ocean, causing a disruption of normal weather patterns?

  • (1) monsoons
  • (2) volcanic eruptions
  • (3) El Niño
  • (4) deforestation
Answer: (3) El Niño 

15. Which form of electromagnetic energy has the longest wavelength?

  • (1) ultraviolet rays
  • (2) visible light
  • (3) gamma rays
  • (4) radio waves
Answer: (4) radio waves 

16. The table below shows the average January air temperature from 1901 to 2006 in two different cities in New York State.

The most likely cause of this air temperature difference is that New York City is located

  • (1) in a different prevailing wind belt
  • (2) at a higher latitude
  • (3) near a large body of water
  • (4) at a higher elevation
Answer: (3) near a large body of water 

17. Which igneous rock has a vesicular texture and a felsic composition?

  • (1) pumice
  • (2) basalt
  • (3) granite
  • (4) scoria
Answer: (1) pumice 

18. Which radioactive element is used to determine the absolute age of late Pleistocene animal remains?

  • (1) rubidium-87
  • (2) uranium-238
  • (3) potassium-40
  • (4) carbon-14
Answer: (4) carbon-14 

19. Which mineral precipitates from oceans and forms rock salt?

  • (1) quartz
  • (2) fluorite
  • (3) halite
  • (4) olivine
Answer: (3) halite 

20. Which river in New York State flows for several miles over surface bedrock that is more than 542 million years old?

  • (1) Mohawk
  • (2) Susquehanna
  • (3) Genesee
  • (4) Hudson
Answer: (4) Hudson 

21. Which sediment is most easily picked up and transported by the wind?

  • (1) cobbles
  • (2) pebbles
  • (3) sand
  • (4) silt
Answer: (4) silt 

22. The presence of coal in Antarctica indicates that

  • (1) forests can grow on continental glaciers
  • (2) coal can form in cold climates
  • (3) Antarctica’s climate was once warmer
  • (4) Antarctica currently has areas of tropical climate
Answer: (3) Antarctica’s climate was once warmer 

23. Organisms that later became good index fossils lived over a

  • (1) wide geographic area and existed for a long geologic time
  • (2) wide geographic area and existed for a short geologic time
  • (3) limited geographic area and existed for a long geologic time
  • (4) limited geographic area and existed for a short geologic time
Answer: (2) wide geographic area and existed for a short geologic time 

24. The cross section of Earth below shows a P-wave moving away from an earthquake epicenter to seismic station A.

No S-waves arrive directly at seismic station A because

  • (1) some parts of the core are liquid
  • (2) S-waves travel too slowly
  • (3) the distance to seismic station A is too great
  • (4) seismic station A is located on glacial ice
Answer: (1) some parts of the core are liquid 

25. Which graph best represents the textures of granite, pegmatite, and rhyolite?

Answer: (4)  

26. Which type of surface bedrock is commonly found in New York State between Elmira and Ithaca?

  • (1) granite
  • (2) quartzite
  • (3) shale
  • (4) marble
Answer: (3) shale 

27. New York’s Tug Hill landscape region is classified as a plateau because this region has a

  • (1) high elevation with distorted bedrock
  • (2) high elevation with nearly horizontal layers of bedrock
  • (3) low elevation with distorted bedrock
  • (4) low elevation with nearly horizontal layers of bedrock
Answer: (2) high elevation with nearly horizontal layers of bedrock 

28. Which two locations are found in the same majorgeographic landscape province?

  • (1) Albany and Old Forge
  • (2) Elmira and Riverhead
  • (3) Jamestown and Slide Mountain
  • (4) Massena and Mount Marcy
Answer: (3) Jamestown and Slide Mountain 

29. Which mineral is most frequently found in both granitic continental crust and basaltic oceanic crust?

  • (1) olivine
  • (2) potassium feldspar
  • (3) plagioclase feldspar
  • (4) quartz
Answer: (3) plagioclase feldspar 

30. The map below shows a meandering stream as it enters a lake. The arrow shows the direction of stream flow. Points A through D represent locations on the surface of the stream.

The greatest stream velocities are found closest to points

  • (1) A and B
  • (2) B and C
  • (3) C and D
  • (4) D and A
Answer: (2) B and C 

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