Earth Science August 2009

Earth Science August 2009 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
EARTH SCIENCE
Thursday, August 13, 2009 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.

1. An observer recorded the times of three successive high tides at one Earth location as:

• 7:12 a.m.
• 7:38 p.m.
• 8:04 a.m.

What was the time of the next high tide?

  • (1) 8:12 p.m.
  • (2) 8:30 p.m.
  • (3) 8:38 p.m.
  • (4) 9:04 p.m.
Answer: (2) 8:30 p.m. 

2. A camera was placed in an open field and pointed toward the northern sky. The lens of the camera was left open for a certain amount of time. The result is shown in the photograph below. The angle of the arc through which two of the stars appeared to move during this time exposure is shown.

How many hours was the lens left open to produce the photograph?

  • (1) 12
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 6
  • (4) 4
Answer: (3) 6 

3. At which location is the altitude of Polaris approximately 42°?

  • (1) Niagara Falls
  • (2) Elmira
  • (3) Watertown
  • (4) Massena
Answer: (2) Elmira 

4. At which latitude is the Sun directly overhead on certain days of the year?

  • (1) 23.5° N
  • (2) 42° N
  • (3) 66.5° N
  • (4) 90° N
Answer: (1) 23.5° N  

5. Which motion causes the constellation Orion to be visible at midnight from New York State in winter but not in summer?

  • (1) rotation of Earth
  • (2) rotation of Orion
  • (3) revolution of Earth
  • (4) revolution of Orion
Answer: (3) revolution of Earth 

6. The model below shows the Sun’s apparent path across the sky for an observer in New York State.

On which day of the year was this path observed?

  • (1) March 21
  • (2) June 21
  • (3) September 21
  • (4) December 21
Answer: (4) December 21 

7. What does a red shift in light from distant celestial objects indicate to a scientist on Earth?

  • (1) The gravitational force on Earth changes.
  • (2) The universe appears to be expanding.
  • (3) The Jovian planets are aligned with the Sun.
  • (4) Galaxies are becoming more numerous.
Answer: (2) The universe appears to be expanding. 

8. During a heavy rainstorm, runoff is most likely to occur if the surface soil is

  • (1) firmly packed clay-sized particles
  • (2) loosely packed sand-sized particles
  • (3) covered by trees, shrubs, and grasses
  • (4) unsaturated and has a gentle slope
Answer: (1) firmly packed clay-sized particles 

9. By which process do plants add water vapor to the atmosphere?

  • (1) precipitation
  • (2) transpiration
  • (3) condensation
  • (4) absorption
Answer: (2) transpiration 

10. Cloud formation is likely to occur in rising air because rising air

  • (1) expands and cools
  • (2) expands and warms
  • (3) contracts and cools
  • (4) contracts and warms
Answer: (1) expands and cools 

11. In which two temperature zones of the atmosphere does the temperature increase with increasing altitude?

  • (1) troposphere and stratosphere
  • (2) troposphere and mesosphere
  • (3) stratosphere and thermosphere
  • (4) mesosphere and thermosphere
Answer: (3) stratosphere and thermosphere 

12. Which type of electromagnetic radiation has the longest wavelength?

  • (1) ultraviolet
  • (2) gamma rays
  • (3) visible light
  • (4) radio waves
Answer: (4) radio waves 

13. Which cold ocean current affects the climate of the northeastern coast of North America?

  • (1) Gulf Stream
  • (2) Canaries
  • (3) Labrador
  • (4) North Atlantic
Answer: (3) Labrador 

14. Which change would cause a decrease in the amount of insolation absorbed at Earth’s surface?

  • (1) a decrease in cloud cover
  • (2) a decrease in atmospheric transparency
  • (3) an increase in the duration of daylight
  • (4) an increase in nitrogen gas
Answer: (2) a decrease in atmospheric transparency 

15. Most sandstone bedrock is composed of sediment that was

  • (1) sorted by size and not layered
  • (2) sorted by size and layered
  • (3) unsorted and not layered
  • (4) unsorted and layered
Answer: (2) sorted by size and layered 

16. Which event temporarily slows or reverses surface ocean currents in the equatorial region of the Pacific Ocean, causing a disruption of normal weather patterns?

  • (1) tsunami
  • (2) volcanic eruption
  • (3) El Niño
  • (4) deforestation
Answer: (3) El Niño 

17. Increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere increases atmospheric temperature because the carbon dioxide absorbs

  • (1) incoming solar gamma ray radiation
  • (2) incoming solar visible light radiation
  • (3) outgoing terrestrial ultraviolet radiation
  • (4) outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation
Answer: (4) outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation 

18. The basaltic bedrock of the oceanic crust is classified as

  • (1) felsic, with a density of 2.7 g/cm3
  • (2) felsic, with a density of 3.0 g/cm3
  • (3) mafic, with a density of 2.7 g/cm3
  • (4) mafic, with a density of 3.0 g/cm3
Answer: (4) mafic, with a density of 3.0 g/cm3 

19. At which plate boundary is one lithospheric plate sliding under another?

  • (1) Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate
  • (2) Pacific Plate and Indian-Australian Plate
  • (3) Indian-Australian Plate and Antarctic Plate
  • (4) Nazca Plate and Pacific Plate
Answer: (2) Pacific Plate and Indian-Australian Plate 

20. The photograph below shows a large boulder of metamorphic rock in a field in the Allegheny Plateau region of New York State.

The boulder was most likely moved to this location by

  • (1) glacial ice
  • (2) prevailing wind
  • (3) streamflow
  • (4) volcanic action
Answer: (1) glacial ice  

21. The cross section below shows a rock sequence that has not been overturned.

Which event occurred last at this location?

  • (1) Shale was deposited.
  • (2) Glacial till was deposited.
  • (3) Basaltic lava flows solidified.
  • (4) Glossopteris flourished and then became extinct.
Answer: (3) Basaltic lava flows solidified. 

22. The map below shows a meandering river. Points A and B are locations on the banks of the river.

What are the dominant processes occurring at locations A and B?

  • (1) deposition at location A; erosion at location B
  • (2) erosion at location A; deposition at location B
  • (3) deposition at both locations A and B
  • (4) erosion at both locations A and B
Answer: (4) erosion at both locations A and B 

23. Which event in Earth’s history was dependent on the development of a certain type of life-form?

  • (1) addition of free oxygen to Earth’s atmosphere
  • (2) formation of clastic sedimentary rocks
  • (3) movement of tectonic plates
  • (4) filling of the oceans by precipitation
Answer: (1) addition of free oxygen to Earth’s atmosphere 

24. The diagram below shows sand particles being moved by wind.

At which Earth surface locations is this process usually the most dominant type of erosion?

  • (1) deserts and beaches
  • (2) deltas and floodplains
  • (3) glaciers and moraines
  • (4) mountain peaks and escarpments
Answer: (1) deserts and beaches 

25. Which time line most accurately indicates when this sequence of events in Earth’s history occurred?

Answer: (2)  

26. Which block diagram best shows a transform fault?

Answer: (4)

27. Which property is most useful in distinguishing pyroxene from amphibole?

  • (1) sample size
  • (2) hardness
  • (3) type of luster
  • (4) angles of cleavage
Answer: (4) angles of cleavage 

28. Earth’s inner core is inferred to be solid based on the analysis of

  • (1) seismic waves
  • (2) crustal rocks
  • (3) radioactive decay rates
  • (4) magnetic pole reversals
Answer: (1) seismic waves 

29. The diagram below shows the Moon as it revolves around Earth. The numbered locations represent different positions of the Moon in its orbit.

Which Moon phase would be seen by an observer in New York State when the Moon is at position 2?

Answer: (2)  

30. The diagram below shows a sling psychrometer

Based on the dry-bulb temperature and the wet-bulb temperature, what is the dewpoint?

  • (1) 5°C
  • (2) 12°C
  • (3) 14°C
  • (4) 16°C
Answer: (2) 12°C 

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