Earth Science August 2008

Earth Science August 2008 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
EARTH SCIENCE
Wednesday, August 13, 2008 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.

1. Which statement best describes the age of our solar system and the universe?

  • (1) The universe is at least twice as old as our solar system.
  • (2) Our solar system is at least twice as old as the universe.
  • (3) Our solar system and the universe are estimated to be 5 billion years old.
  • (4) Our solar system and the universe are estimated to be 10 billion years old.
Answer: (1) The universe is at least twice as old as our solar system. 

2. A Foucault pendulum is used to prove that

  • (1) the Sun rotates on its axis
  • (2) the Sun revolves around Earth
  • (3) Earth rotates on its axis
  • (4) Earth revolves around the Sun
Answer: (3) Earth rotates on its axis 

3. Compared to the terrestrial planets, the Jovian planets are

  • (1) smaller and have lower densities
  • (2) smaller and have greater densities
  • (3) larger and have lower densities
  • (4) larger and have greater densities
Answer: (3) larger and have lower densities 

4. Which process produces the energy that allows the stars of the universe to radiate visible light?

  • (1) convection
  • (2) nuclear fusion
  • (3) insolation
  • (4) radioactive decay
Answer: (2) nuclear fusion 

5. A soil sample with a large amount of space between the particles will have a

  • (1) low permeability rate
  • (2) low infiltration rate
  • (3) high porosity
  • (4) high capillarity
Answer: (3) high porosity 

6. When Earth cools, most of the energy transferred from Earth’s surface to space is transferred by the process of

  • (1) conduction
  • (2) reflection
  • (3) refraction
  • (4) radiation
Answer: (4) radiation 

7. The spinning of Earth on its axis causes the apparent rising and setting of the

  • (1) Sun, only
  • (2) Sun and the Moon, only
  • (3) Moon and some stars, only
  • (4) Sun, the Moon, and some stars
Answer: (4) Sun, the Moon, and some stars 

8. On sunny summer days, a breeze often develops that blows from large bodies of water toward nearby landmasses because the

  • (1) temperature of the air above the landmasses is greater
  • (2) specific heat of the landmasses is greater
  • (3) temperatures of the bodies of water are greater
  • (4) air over the bodies of water becomes heavier with additional water vapor
Answer: (1) temperature of the air above the landmasses is greater 

9. The topographic map below shows part of a stream.

In which general direction is the stream flowing?

  • (1) northeast
  • (2) northwest
  • (3) southeast
  • (4) southwest
Answer: (3) southeast 

10. Which pair of shaded circles best represents the relative sizes of Earth and Venus when drawn to scale?

Answer: (2)  

11. The weather instrument below is used to determine dewpoint and relative humidity.

Based on the temperatures shown, the approximate dewpoint and relative humidity are

  • (1) –19°C and 4%
  • (2) –5°C and 25%
  • (3) 8°C and 40%
  • (4) 12°C and 53%
Answer: (3) 8°C and 40% 

Base your answers to questions 12 through 14 on the weather map below, which shows a high-pressure center (H) and a low-pressure center (L), with two fronts extending from the low-pressure center. Points X and Y are locations on the map connected by a reference line.

12. Which type of front is located between Buffalo and Detroit?

  • (1) stationary
  • (2) warm
  • (3) occluded
  • (4) cold
Answer: (4) cold 

13. Which cross section best represents the fronts and air movements in the lower atmosphere along line XY?

Answer: (3)  

14. Which map best shows the most probable areas of precipitation associated with these weather systems?

Answer: (3)  

15. Which graph best shows the general relationship between the altitude of the noontime Sun and the intensity of insolation received at a location?

Answer: (1)  

16. The cross section below shows the direction of air flowing over a mountain. Points A and B are at the same elevation on opposite sides of the mountain.

Compared to the air temperature and humidity at point A, the air temperature and humidity at point B are usually

  • (1) cooler and drier
  • (2) cooler and wetter
  • (3) warmer and drier
  • (4) warmer and wetter
Answer: (3) warmer and drier 

17. The cross section below shows rock layers A, B, C, D, and fault F. The rock layers have not been overturned.

Which sequence places the rock layers and fault in order from oldest to youngest?

  • (1) D → C → B → A → F
  • (2) A → B → C → D → F
  • (3) F → D → C → B → A
  • (4) F → A → B → C → D
Answer: (1) D → C → B → A → F 

18. The largest sediment particles that can be transported by a stream traveling at a velocity of 200 centimeters per second are

  • (1) boulders
  • (2) cobbles
  • (3) pebbles
  • (4) sand
Answer: (2) cobbles

19. What happens to the density and temperature of rock within Earth’s interior as depth increases?

  • (1) density decreases and temperature decreases
  • (2) density decreases and temperature increases
  • (3) density increases and temperature increases
  • (4) density increases and temperature decreases
Answer: (3) density increases and temperature increases

20. Scientists believe that a large asteroid struck Earth approximately 65 million years ago. It is often theorized that this event contributed to the

  • (1) end of the last ice age
  • (2) breaking up of the supercontinent Pangea
  • (3) evolution of the first birds
  • (4) extinction of the dinosaurs
Answer: (4) extinction of the dinosaurs 

21. Which two landscape regions in New York State have the oldest surface bedrock?

  • (1) Allegheny Plateau and Newark Lowlands
  • (2) Tug Hill Plateau and Erie-Ontario Lowlands
  • (3) Taconic Mountains and the Catskills
  • (4) Adirondack Mountains and Hudson Highlands
Answer: (4) Adirondack Mountains and Hudson Highlands 

22. The topographic map below shows locations X and Y.

What is the approximate gradient between X and Y?

  • (1) 15 ft/mi
  • (2) 20 ft/mi
  • (3) 30 ft/mi
  • (4) 60 ft/mi
Answer: (3) 30 ft/mi 

23. The diagram below represents a sample of a radioactive isotope.

Which diagram best represents the percentage of this radioactive isotope sample that will remain after 2 half-lives?

Answer: (2)  

24. Which map best indicates the probable locations of continents 100 million years from now if tectonic plate movement continues at its present rate and direction?

Answer: (1)

25. Which graph best represents the relationship between the slope of a river and the particle size that can be transported by that river?

Answer: (2)  

Base your answers to questions 26 and 27 on the photograph below, which shows a bedrock outcrop in northeastern New York State. Line AB is an unconformity between sandstone C and metamorphic rock D.

26. The lower layers of sediment found in sandstone C were deposited 520 million years ago. During which period of geologic time did this deposition occur?

  • (1) Cambrian
  • (2) Ordovician.
  • (3) Silurian
  • (4) Triassic
Answer: (1) Cambrian 

27. After the metamorphism of rock D, which sequence of events most probably formed unconformity AB?

  • (1) flooding → deposition → erosion → uplift
  • (2) uplift → erosion → flooding → deposition
  • (3) deposition → flooding → uplift → erosion
  • (4) erosion → flooding → uplift → deposition
Answer: (2) uplift → erosion → flooding → deposition 

28. Which agent of erosion was primarily responsible for forming the long, narrow, U-shaped valleys in the Finger Lakes region of New York State?

  • (1) wind
  • (2) landslides
  • (3) meandering streams
  • (4) continental glaciers
Answer: (4) continental glaciers 

29. Which observation about the Mid-Atlantic Ridge region provides the best evidence that the seafloor has been spreading for millions of years?

  • (1) The bedrock of the ridge and nearby seafloor is igneous rock.
  • (2) The ridge is the location of irregular volcanic eruptions.
  • (3) Several faults cut across the ridge and nearby seafloor.
  • (4) Seafloor bedrock is younger near the ridge and older farther away.
Answer: (4) Seafloor bedrock is younger near the ridge and older farther away. 

30. The diagram below shows the index minerals of Mohs hardness scale compared with the hardness of some common objects.

Which statement is best supported by the diagram?

  • (1) A fingernail will scratch calcite but not gypsum.
  • (2) Calcite will be scratched by a copper penny.
  • (3) The mineral apatite will scratch topaz.
  • (4) A steel file has a hardness of about 7.5
Answer: (2) Calcite will be scratched by a copper penny.

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