Earth Science August 2003

Earth Science August 2003 Questions Answers Keys.

The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
PHYSICAL SETTING
CHEMISTRY
Wednesday, August 13, 2003 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only

Directions : For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

1. Which electron transition represents a gain of energy?

  • (1) from 2nd to 3rd shell
  • (2) from 2nd to 1st shell
  • (3) from 3rd to 2nd shell
  • (4) from 3rd to 1st shell
Answer: (1) from 2nd to 3rd shell 

2. Which particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?

  • (1) electrons, only
  • (2) neutrons, only
  • (3) protons and electrons
  • (4) protons and neutrons
Answer: (4) protons and neutrons 

3. What is the total number of valence electrons in an atom of sulfur in the ground state?

  • (1) 6
  • (2) 8
  • (3) 3
  • (4) 4
Answer: (1) 6 

4. An electron has a charge of

  • (1) –1 and the same mass as a proton
  • (2) +1 and the same mass as a proton
  • (3) –1 and a smaller mass than a proton
  • (4) +1 and a smaller mass than a proton
Answer: (3) –1 and a smaller mass than a proton 

5. The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing

  • (1) atomic number
  • (2) atomic radius
  • (3) mass number
  • (4) neutron number
Answer: (1) atomic number 

6. What is the correct IUPAC name for the compound NH4Cl?

  • (1) nitrogen chloride
  • (2) nitrogen chlorate
  • (3) ammonium chloride
  • (4) ammonium chlorate
Answer: (3) ammonium chloride 

7. Which element is a solid at STP?

  • (1) H2
  • (2) I2
  • (3) N2
  • (4) O2
Answer: (2)I2 

8. In which compound is the percent by mass of oxygen greatest?

  • (1) BeO
  • (2) MgO
  • (3) CaO
  • (4) SrO
Answer: (1) BeO 

9. Based on Reference Table F, which of these salts is the best electrolyte?

  • (1) sodium nitrate
  • (2) magnesium carbonate
  • (3) silver chloride
  • (4) barium sulfate
Answer: (1) sodium nitrate 

10. What is conserved during a chemical reaction?

  • (1) mass, only
  • (2) charge, only
  • (3) both mass and charge
  • (4) neither mass nor charge
Answer: (3) both mass and charge 

11. Which type of bond is formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another?

  • (1) covalent
  • (2) ionic
  • (3) hydrogen
  • (4) metallic
Answer: (2) ionic 

12. Which Lewis electron-dot structure is drawn correctly for the atom it represents?

Answer: (4)  

13. What occurs when an atom of chlorine forms a chloride ion?

  • (1) The chlorine atom gains an electron, and its radius becomes smaller.
  • (2) The chlorine atom gains an electron, and its radius becomes larger.
  • (3) The chlorine atom loses an electron, and its radius becomes smaller.
  • (4) The chlorine atom loses an electron, and its radius becomes larger.
Answer: (2) The chlorine atom gains an electron, and its radius becomes larger. 

14. Which substance can not be decomposed by a chemical change?

  • (1) Ne
  • (2) N2O
  • (3) HF
  • (4) H2O
Answer: (1) Ne 

15. Which of these substances has the strongest intermolecular forces?

  • (1) H2O
  • (2) H2S
  • (3) H2Se
  • (4) H2Te
Answer: (1) H2O 

16. A real gas behaves more like an ideal gas when the gas molecules are

  • (1) close and have strong attractive forces between them
  • (2) close and have weak attractive forces between them
  • (3) far apart and have strong attractive forces between them
  • (4) far apart and have weak attractive forces between them
Answer: (4) far apart and have weak attractive forces between them 

17. Which phase change is an exothermic process?

  • (1) CO2(s) → CO2(g)
  • (2) NH3(g) → NH3()
  • (3) Cu(s) → Cu()
  • (4) Hg() → Hg(g
Answer: (2) NH3(g) → NH3() 

18. Which of these contains only one substance?

  • (1) distilled water
  • (2) sugar water
  • (3) saltwater
  • (4) rainwater
Answer: (1) distilled water 

19. In which group of the Periodic Table do most of the elements exhibit both positive and negative oxidation states?

  • (1) 17
  • (2) 2
  • (3) 12
  • (4) 7
Answer: (1) 17 

20. At the same temperature and pressure, 1.0 liter of CO(g) and 1.0 liter of CO2(g) have

  • (1) equal masses and the same number of molecules
  • (2) different masses and a different number of molecules
  • (3) equal volumes and the same number of molecules
  • (4) different volumes and a different number of molecules
Answer: (3) equal volumes and the same number of molecules 

21. Which type of reaction occurs when nonmetal atoms become negative nonmetal ions?

  • (1) oxidation
  • (2) reduction
  • (3) substitution
  • (4) condensation
Answer: (2) reduction 

22. Given the reaction:

AgCl(s) ←H2O→ Ag+(aq) + Cl(aq)

Once equilibrium is reached, which statement is accurate?

  • (1) The concentration of Ag+(aq) is greater than the concentration of Cl–(aq).
  • (2) The AgCl(s) will be completely consumed.
  • (3) The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.
  • (4) The entropy of the forward reaction will continue to decrease.
Answer: (3) The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. 

23. Which structural formula correctly represents a hydrocarbon molecule?

Answer: (2)  

24. Given the structural formulas for two organic compounds:

The differences in their physical and chemical properties are primarily due to their different

  • (1) number of carbon atoms
  • (2) number of hydrogen atoms
  • (3) molecular masses
  • (4) functional groups
Answer: (4) functional groups 

25. Which structural formula represents a molecule that is not an isomer of pentane?

Answer: (4)  

26. The bonds in the compound MgSO4 can be described as

  • (1) ionic, only
  • (2) covalent, only
  • (3) both ionic and covalent
  • (4) neither ionic nor covalent
Answer: (3) both ionic and covalent 

27. Given the reaction:

Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Which statement correctly describes what occurs when this reaction takes place in a closed system?

  • (1) Atoms of Zn(s) lose electrons and are oxidized.
  • (2) Atoms of Zn(s) gain electrons and are reduced.
  • (3) There is a net loss of mass.
  • (4) There is a net gain of mass.
Answer: (1) Atoms of Zn(s) lose electrons and are oxidized. 

28. When the pH of a solution changes from a pH of 5 to a pH of 3, the hydronium ion concentration is

  • (1) 0.01 of the original content
  • (2) 0.1 of the original content
  • (3) 10 times the original content
  • (4) 100 times the original content
Answer: (4) 100 times the original content 

29. A sample of Ca(OH)2 is considered to be an Arrhenius base because it dissolves in water to yield

  • (1) Ca2+ ions as the only positive ions in solution
  • (2) H3O+ ions as the only positive ions in solution
  • (3) OH ions as the only negative ions in solution
  • (4) H ions as the only negative ions in solution
Answer: (3) OH ions as the only negative ions in solution 

30. Which reaction occurs when hydrogen ions react with hydroxide ions to form water?

  • (1) substitution
  • (2) saponification
  • (3) ionization
  • (4) neutralization
Answer: (4) neutralization 

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